Decent work and the digital economy: A developing country perspective on employment impacts and standards in online outsourcing, crowdwork, etc.

This paper presents a review of current evidence and ideas relating to the digital gig economy (DGE): contingent (task- or project-based) intangible work delivered digitally and done for money, organised via online outsourcing platforms that are marketplaces bringing together buyers and sellers. Examples of such platforms include Freelancer, Upwork, Amazon Mechanical Turk and Zhubajie/Witmart. While the paper takes a particular interest in the perspective of workers in developing countries, most of its findings will apply globally, and many will apply to the broader gig / sharing / platform economy.

Heeks, R. (2017), Decent work and the digital economy: A developing country perspective on employment impacts and standards in online outsourcing, crowdwork, etc., Working Paper, No. 71, Centre for Development Informatics Global Development Institute, SEED, Manchester, UK.

Metadata

  • Freelancer, Upwork, Zhubajie, Epweike, TaskCN
  • professional services
  • Online moderately skilled click work, Online platform-determined higher-skilled work, Online client-determined specialist work, Online contestant specialist work
  • China, Asia, United States, EU28
  • 2017
  • Research publication
  • worker demographics, income, health and safety, skills and skills development, motivation, employment status, employability and career progression
  • English
  • Global Development Institute, SEED, University of Manchester (Research institute)
  • Qualitative research
  • Open access
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