EurWORK European Observatory of Working Life

EurWORK content

  • EU labour law directives and national collective agreements: A clash of cultures?

    Collective agreements are among the panoply of national measures deemed appropriate mechanisms for the implementation of EU directives in the fields of social and employment policy and industrial relations. This role of collective agreements is prescribed by Article 153(3) of the Treaty on the...
  • Minimum wages in low-paid sectoral collective agreements

  • Right to leave the workstation

    Definition The ‘right to leave the workstation’ allows an employee to leave their workstation if they feel threatened, without retaliation from the employer. This right was invoked by many workers in the EU in the context of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic. Background and status The workers’ right to...
  • Critical occupations in essential services

    Definition The term ‘critical occupations’ has taken on a new meaning during the 2020 COVID-19 global crisis. According to the European Commission, critical occupations refer to jobs that have been essential in fighting the pandemic, as well as those that ensure economic continuity in times of...
  • EU level: Latest developments in working life Q1 2020

    Social partners’ reactions to the Commission's proposals for a strong social Europe, including a minimum fair wage initiative, are the main topics of interest in this article. This EU update reports on the latest developments in working life in the EU in the first quarter of 2020. Topics related to...
  • European unemployment reinsurance scheme

    Definition Unemployment benefits are an important part of Member States’ social safety nets; during an economic downturn, more people tend to claim such benefits. However, the state’s resources are constrained by the need to contain fiscal deficits. A European unemployment reinsurance scheme would...
  • EU level: Latest developments in working life in light of the COVID-19 pandemic - Q1 2020

    In early March 2020, working life in EU Member States came under enormous pressure due to the rapid spread of the COVID-19 disease and the precautionary measures taken by governments in subsequent weeks. This article gives a brief overview of the first reactions of European institutions and some of...
  • SURE initiative

    Definition The SURE initiative (Support to mitigate Unemployment Risks in an Emergency) was presented by the European Commission on 2 April 2020 in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. It is a financial instrument, allowing Member States to access loans at advantageous rates to finance a system of...
  • Developments in working life in Europe - Q4 2019

    What has taken place during the fourth quarter of 2019 in the industrial relations and working conditions landscape in European countries? There is no need for readers to look further: you can get up-to-date information as reported by our Network of Eurofound Correspondents who, on a quarterly...
  • Occupational welfare

    See Negotiated welfare

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