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  • Report
    18 Februarie 2014

    This report provides an in-depth analysis of the quality of employment conditions and employment relations in the European employed workforce. Employment in the report is viewed as the contractual relationship between an employer and a worker, specifically how the rights and duties embedded into the relationship are translated into real rights. The analysis is mainly based on data from the fifth European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS), conducted in 2010. Where appropriate, comparisons with earlier waves of the EWCS are made.

  • Article
    17 Februarie 2014

    The Danish Crown [1] group specialises in meat and meat products for the
    global market. It is a co-operative meat company owned by Danish farmers. In
    2012–2013 the group had a revenue of DKK 58 billion (€7.7 billion, as of
    12 February 2014) and a net profit of DKK 1.7 billion (€0.23 billion). In
    recent years, market share has been lost to emerging markets like China and


  • Article
    17 Februarie 2014

    On 7 January 2014, a new round of collective bargaining started in Denmark in
    the private sector, under the auspices of the Danish Confederation of Danish
    Trade Unions (LO [1]) and the Confederation of Danish Employers (DA [2]). The
    negotiations covers almost 600,000 employees.


  • Article
    13 Februarie 2014

    A general election was held in Austria in September 2013 at the end of the
    five-year parliamentary term. As in 2008, the Social Democratic Party (SPÖ
    [1]) and the conservative People’s Party (ÖVP [2]) won the largest share
    of the vote, although both parties lost seats. The right-wing Freedom Party
    (FPÖ [3]) came third but increased its share of the vote. After several
    weeks of negotiations, a new ‘grand coalition’ was agreed between the
    SPÖ (with 26.8% of the vote) and ÖVP (24%). The two parties now hold 99 out
    of 183 seats in parliament.


  • Article
    11 Februarie 2014

    The annual report by the Labour Institute of the Greek General Confederation
    of Labour (INE/GSEE [1]) has made an evaluation of the Greek Government’s
    response to the economic crisis in the country, now in its sixth year.


  • Article
    11 Februarie 2014

    The economic crisis has forced many of Greece’s private sector enterprises
    to close or suspend operations. There have also been employment cuts in the
    public sector. This means that there is a rising youth unemployment problem
    in Greece, as young people are leaving school and university to find there is
    a lack of employment opportunities. Half of those aged 29 or under do not
    have a job, and this age group makes up one in three of all unemployed
    workers. Around half of this group have never had a job, and just over half
    have been out of work for more than a year.

  • Article
    6 Februarie 2014

    A public opinion survey (in Polish, 291 KB PDF) [1] in Poland has found there
    is concern about wage inequality in the country. The survey was carried out
    by Poland’s Public Opinion Research Centre (CBOS [2]). It was part of
    larger research project, Current problems and events, and carried out between
    1–12 August 2013. It used a representative random sample of 902 adult Poles
    using computer assisted face-to-face interviews (CAPI).


  • Report
    4 Februarie 2014
    Eurofound has conducted the European Quality of Life Survey EQLS) in 2003, 2007 and 2011. This report compares the results from the three waves to provide evidence of trends and change in the quality of life of Europeans over a decade. It also examines whether differences across EU Member States have narrowed or remained stable. One of its findings is that subjective well-being has remained stable across the EU as whole, but it also finds that financial strain in households has grown in the wake of the economic crisis.
  • Article
    2 Februarie 2014

    Various types of temporary work in Belgium have different contractual
    agreements. These include paid training schemes, student jobs, occasional
    work, service vouchers, apprenticeships, fixed-term contracts and temporary
    agency work [1]. Most of these work contracts are partly or fully covered by
    Collective Agreement 36 of 27 November 1981.


  • Article
    2 Februarie 2014

    On 17 September, the tripartite supervisory board of the Estonian
    Unemployment Insurance Fund (Töötukassa [1]) proposed reducing unemployment
    insurance premiums from 3% to 2.1%. The board were in favour of this proposal
    by four votes to two. Representatives of both employers and trade unions
    voted in favour, arguing that the EUIF’s current reserves are large enough
    to survive another crisis. By the end of 2013, the net assets of the EUIF
    were expected to be €525.3 million, predicted to increase to €529.4
    million by the end of 2014. According to the social partners’ estimates, at
    the reduced rate of 2.1% the EUIF would collect €125.7 million gross
    revenue in 2014 and its expected outgoings would be €121.6 million.



  • European Working Conditions Telephone Survey 2021

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Developments in working life, industrial relations and working conditions in the EU

    This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

Forthcoming publications