This report provides an in-depth analysis of the quality of employment conditions and employment relations in the European employed workforce. Employment in the report is viewed as the contractual relationship between an employer and a worker, specifically how the rights and duties embedded into the relationship are translated into real rights. The analysis is mainly based on data from the fifth European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS), conducted in 2010. Where appropriate, comparisons with earlier waves of the EWCS are made.
The Danish Crown  group specialises in meat and meat products for the
global market. It is a co-operative meat company owned by Danish farmers. In
2012–2013 the group had a revenue of DKK 58 billion (€7.7 billion, as of
12 February 2014) and a net profit of DKK 1.7 billion (€0.23 billion). In
recent years, market share has been lost to emerging markets like China and
On 7 January 2014, a new round of collective bargaining started in Denmark in
the private sector, under the auspices of the Danish Confederation of Danish
Trade Unions (LO ) and the Confederation of Danish Employers (DA ). The
negotiations covers almost 600,000 employees.
A general election was held in Austria in September 2013 at the end of the
five-year parliamentary term. As in 2008, the Social Democratic Party (SPÖ
) and the conservative People’s Party (ÖVP ) won the largest share
of the vote, although both parties lost seats. The right-wing Freedom Party
(FPÖ ) came third but increased its share of the vote. After several
weeks of negotiations, a new ‘grand coalition’ was agreed between the
SPÖ (with 26.8% of the vote) and ÖVP (24%). The two parties now hold 99 out
of 183 seats in parliament.
The annual report by the Labour Institute of the Greek General Confederation
of Labour (INE/GSEE ) has made an evaluation of the Greek Government’s
response to the economic crisis in the country, now in its sixth year.
The economic crisis has forced many of Greece’s private sector enterprises
to close or suspend operations. There have also been employment cuts in the
public sector. This means that there is a rising youth unemployment problem
in Greece, as young people are leaving school and university to find there is
a lack of employment opportunities. Half of those aged 29 or under do not
have a job, and this age group makes up one in three of all unemployed
workers. Around half of this group have never had a job, and just over half
have been out of work for more than a year.
A public opinion survey (in Polish, 291 KB PDF)  in Poland has found there
is concern about wage inequality in the country. The survey was carried out
by Poland’s Public Opinion Research Centre (CBOS ). It was part of
larger research project, Current problems and events, and carried out between
1–12 August 2013. It used a representative random sample of 902 adult Poles
using computer assisted face-to-face interviews (CAPI).
Eurofound has conducted the European Quality of Life Survey EQLS) in 2003, 2007 and 2011. This report compares the results from the three waves to provide evidence of trends and change in the quality of life of Europeans over a decade. It also examines whether differences across EU Member States have narrowed or remained stable. One of its findings is that subjective well-being has remained stable across the EU as whole, but it also finds that financial strain in households has grown in the wake of the economic crisis.
Various types of temporary work in Belgium have different contractual
agreements. These include paid training schemes, student jobs, occasional
work, service vouchers, apprenticeships, fixed-term contracts and temporary
agency work . Most of these work contracts are partly or fully covered by
Collective Agreement 36 of 27 November 1981.
On 17 September, the tripartite supervisory board of the Estonian
Unemployment Insurance Fund (Töötukassa ) proposed reducing unemployment
insurance premiums from 3% to 2.1%. The board were in favour of this proposal
by four votes to two. Representatives of both employers and trade unions
voted in favour, arguing that the EUIF’s current reserves are large enough
to survive another crisis. By the end of 2013, the net assets of the EUIF
were expected to be €525.3 million, predicted to increase to €529.4
million by the end of 2014. According to the social partners’ estimates, at
the reduced rate of 2.1% the EUIF would collect €125.7 million gross
revenue in 2014 and its expected outgoings would be €121.6 million.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the textiles and clothing sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the textiles and clothing sector in the EU Member States.
This report is carried out in the context of the three-year pilot project (2021–2023), ‘Role of the minimum wage in establishing the Universal Labour Guarantee’, mandated to Eurofound by the European Commission. Its focus is module 3 of the project, investigating minimum wages and other forms of pay for the self-employed. Out of concern for the challenging conditions faced by certain groups of self-employed workers, some Member States have established or are in discussions about proposing some statutory forms of minimum pay for selected categories of the self-employed.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the electricity sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the electricity sector in the EU Member States.
The hospital sector has been deeply impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Hospitals and their workers are on the frontline in the fight against the virus, and they face a number of significant challenges in terms of resources, work organisation and working conditions. This study will explore the role of social dialogue and collective bargaining in how the sector is adapting to the pandemic. What kinds of changes have been introduced, either through social dialogue or collective bargaining? Are the changes temporary or permanent?
This report analyses the role of social dialogue and collective bargaining in addressing the challenges faced by the civil aviation sector during the COVID-19 pandemic. Social partner involvement in the measures introduced to mitigate the negative impacts of the pandemic varies across European countries. Social dialogue and collective bargaining played a prominent role in most countries, while in others they had a more limited role. The report also explores changes made to existing social dialogue and/or collective bargaining processes at national level.
The report provides an overview of the scale of teleworking before and during the COVID-19 crisis and gives an indication of ‘teleworkability’ across sectors and occupations. Building on previous Eurofound research on remote work, the report investigates the way businesses introduced and supported teleworking during the pandemic, as well as the experience of workers who were working from home during the crisis. The report also looks at developments in regulations related to telework in Member States and provides a review of stakeholders’ positions.
This paper provides an analytical summary of state of the art academic and policy literature on the impact of climate change and policies to manage transitions to a carbon neutral economy on employment, working conditions, social dialogue and living conditions. It maps the key empirical findings around the impact of climate change and the green transitions on jobs, sectors, regions and countries in Europe, identifying the opportunities and risks that climate change policies bring to European labour markets.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the textiles and clothing sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements.
This report offers the most up to date insight on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the work and life of Europeans over the last two years. The main focus is on Eurofound’s e-survey Living, working and COVID-19 which was launched on 9 April 2020 just after the onset of the crisis. Through five rounds of the survey (two in 2020, two in 2021 and one in 2022), the range of questions changed to match the evolving situation and to understand the effects on the everyday lives of citizens and workers in the EU27.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the civil aviation sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements.