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  • Article
    27 jún 1997

    The Unemployment Insurance Act (Arbeitslosenversicherungsgesetz, AlVG) makes
    benefit entitlements, but not contributions, dependent on nationality. On 16
    September 1996 the European Court of Human Rights found this inequality to be
    in violation of human rights, creating the need to amend the law, and on 11
    June 1997 Parliament passed the requisite act.

  • Article
    27 máj 1997

    The recession affecting Portuguese companies from 1991 to 1994 showed that
    the difficulties faced by the country stemmed not just from economic
    circumstances. Rather, the roots were far more complex and called for
    structural changes to competitive factors involving the very fabric of
    business and a general remodelling of managerial capacity, vocational
    qualifications and financial structure.

  • Article
    27 máj 1997

    The high number of industrial injuries, recently reported by the Labour
    Inspectorate, have fuelled the debate on the new Work Environment Act, which
    is a part of the Government's action plan /Improved work environment year
    2005/. According to the report on /Reported industrial injuries in the
    building and construction sector, 1993-1995/, the sector experienced a 22%
    increase in industrial injuries over the period in question (DK9704107F [1]).


  • Article
    27 máj 1997

    On 22 April 1997 the European Court of Justice (ECJ) issued a judgment
    stating that some provisions of the German Civil Law (Bürgerliches
    Gesetzbuch,BGB) as well as the German Labour Court Law
    (Arbeitsgerichtsgesetz, ArbGG) offend against the "Council Directive on the
    implementation of the principle of equal treatment for men and women as
    regards access to employment, vocational training and promotion and working
    conditions" (76/207/EEC). The Directive which was adopted by the Council of
    Ministers on 9 February 1976 proclaimed that the Member States shall put into
    effect the "principle of equal treatment" (§ 1) which means "that there
    shall be no discrimination whatsoever on grounds of sex either directly or
    indirectly" (§ 2).

  • Article
    27 máj 1997

    Following the settlement of the public service nurses pay dispute (IE9702104N
    [1]), health workers, prisons officers, police and other public service
    groups have been seeking follow-on increases based on parity claims - all of
    which relate to the settlement secured by Ireland's 25,000 nurses.


  • Article
    27 máj 1997

    The Confederation of British Industry (CBI) announced in April 1997 that
    "absenteeism" - the non-attendance of workers who are expected to be at work
    - had cost UK business GBP 12 billion in 1996; an average of GBP 533 for
    every employee. Just prior to the CBI announcement, the Manufacturing,
    Science, Finance (MSF) trade union had announced the results of a survey
    which highlighted the lack of a "feel-good" factor among employees due to
    increasing job insecurity ("Union survey suggest little 'feel good effect' in
    reality", MSF press release (8 April 1997)). These kinds of surveys have
    elements in common, yet few acknowledge or even see what the linkages are.

  • Article
    27 máj 1997

    In anticipation of the spring 1997 collective bargaining round, pilots at
    Royal Dutch Airlines (KLM) are considering contributing to the company's
    cost-cutting programme by exchanging salaries for share options and an
    increased say in company policy. Unions are divided over this exchange.

  • Article
    27 máj 1997

    In the retail and distributive sector, each type of shop - conventional
    department stores, retail shops, food supermarkets with at least two branches
    and independent retail shops - is covered by its own joint committee [1] and,
    depending on its type, its employees work 36, 38 or 40 hours a week, have pay
    differentials of between 20%- 25% and the right to be represented by a union
    delegation [2] or not.



  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This publication series include the ERM reports, as well as blogs, articles and working papers on restructuring-related events in the EU27 and Norway.

  • European Working Conditions Telephone Survey 2021

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Developments in working life, industrial relations and working conditions in the EU

    This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

Forthcoming publications