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  • Article
    27 máj 1997

    Employment yielding less than ATS 3,740 gross per month or less than ATS 859
    per week or ATS 288 per day, is defined as "minor". Below this threshold,
    neither employee nor employer has to contribute to the national pension or
    health or unemployment insurance. Only national accident insurance has to be
    paid. Minor employment therefore does not earn an entitlement to unemployment
    benefits, maternity benefits, a pension, or medical coverage. On the other
    hand, because of the lower cost, minor employment may be an incentive for
    employers to hire.

  • Article
    27 máj 1997

    The Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions (LO), the largest employee
    confederation in Norway, held its four-yearly congress on 10-16 May 1997. The
    most important issues were the question of continuing with the "Solidarity
    Alternative", and the adoption of the Action Programme for the period
    1997-2001. A discussion also took place between LO unions regarding the
    confederation's policy towards the privatisation of public activities
    (services), while the vice-presidency election received considerable

  • Article
    27 máj 1997

    The findings of a Eurostat study entitled /Statistics in focus: income
    distribution and poverty in the EU 12 - 1993/, published on 14 May 1997, show
    that one out of six citizens and households in the 12 pre-1995 EU member
    states live below the "poverty threshold". In more than half of these
    countries, the figure was even higher - one in five. Even more alarmingly,
    over one-third of poor households were working. These findings are drawn from
    the first wave of statistics generated from the European Community Household
    Panel (ECHP). The ECHP consists of a sample of 60,500 households selected
    randomly in the 12 member states, using a harmonised questionnaire. This data
    does not allow for a comparison of social change over time, but does provide
    important information on the magnitude and dimensions of poverty and income
    disparity in the European Union in the early 1990s. The figures show that
    there are approximately 57 million socially excluded individuals in EU, a
    problem affecting both more and less affluent member states.

  • Article
    27 máj 1997

    May 1997 saw Unilever defending its pro-European stance to shareholders,
    while the Confederation of British Industry (CBI) was also signalling its
    willingness to work with the trade unions prior to the adoption of European
    Union legislation.

  • Article
    27 máj 1997

    At a time when public opinion seems to be losing interest in the campaign for
    the May/June 1997 parliamentary elections (if opinion polls published in the
    middle of May are to be believed, less than half the electorate said they
    were interested in the debates and manifestoes) the trade unions and
    employers' associations, while not telling their members which way to vote,
    are voicing their main demands and preparing the forthcoming social agenda.

  • Article
    27 máj 1997

    Presenting its 1996 results on 6 May 1997, Deutz AG, the German machinery and
    tractor maker which almost collapsed last year, also publicised information
    on the employees' contribution to its 1996 rescue package. The group is
    undergoing a radical restructuring after a crisis last year, caused by big
    losses on cement plants in Saudi Arabia. The deal was struck in May/June 1996
    between management and the group works council [1] and included the


  • Article
    27 máj 1997

    Recent months have seen an intensifying and unresolved dispute over pensions
    at Transports Metropolitans de Barcelona (TMB), including 14 days of strike
    activity starting on 21 February 1997. This is the first time in four years
    that all the unions represented on the TMB workers' committee have acted
    jointly to claim what they understand as a right laid down in previous

  • Article
    27 máj 1997

    New wage agreements were reached on 25 May 1997 covering the Norwegian state
    sector, the municipal sector and the municipality of Oslo. The new agreements
    include a voluntary early retirement scheme for the age-group from 62-63
    years and moderate wage increases. The wage settlement for the public sector
    is therefore in line with the settlement in the private sector with regard to
    total wage growth.


  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This publication series include the ERM reports, as well as blogs, articles and working papers on restructuring-related events in the EU27 and Norway.

  • European Working Conditions Telephone Survey 2021

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Developments in working life, industrial relations and working conditions in the EU

    This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

Forthcoming publications