This report is carried out in the context of the three-year pilot project (2021–2023), ‘Role of the minimum wage in establishing the Universal Labour Guarantee’, mandated to Eurofound by the European Commission. Its focus is module 3 of the project, investigating minimum wages and other forms of pay for the self-employed. Out of concern for the challenging conditions faced by certain groups of self-employed workers, some Member States have established or are in discussions about proposing some statutory forms of minimum pay for selected categories of the self-employed.
The strict public health restrictions implemented by governments in 2020 to control the COVID-19 pandemic abruptly changed working life and continued to shape it over the two years that followed. Between March and November 2021, over 70,000 interviews were carried out in 36 countries by the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS), a high-quality probability-based survey. The aim was to provide a detailed picture of the working lives of Europeans in that exceptional time.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the Food and drink sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of Eurofound’s studies on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the field of industrial relations in the EU Member States.
Správa skúma, ako sa dôvera občanov v inštitúcie – vrátane národných vlád, EÚ, vedeckej obce a médií – vyvíjala v čase pandémie COVID-19 v rokoch 2020 a 2021. Úloha médií sa analyzuje, najmä vzťah medzi používaním sociálnych médií a dôverou a vplyvom nepresných informácií (nesprávnych alebo zavádzajúcich informácií) a dezinformácií (zámerne nepravdivých informácií) v čase krízy. Na základe rozsiahleho preskúmania literatúry správa opisuje následky politických opatrení proti pandémii COVID-19 so zameraním na dôveru občanov vo vnútroštátne inštitúcie a v EÚ.
Inštitucionálna kvalita je kľúčovým faktorom pri dosahovaní vzostupnej hospodárskej a sociálnej konvergencie v EÚ, ktorá zohráva zásadnú úlohu pri raste hospodárstva, prilákaní zahraničných investícií, zabezpečovaní vykonávania politík a reforiem a pri úspešnom prístupe k finančným prostriedkom EÚ. Vhodnosť verejných inštitúcií na daný účel je v súčasnosti obzvlášť dôležitá pri vykonávaní programu NextGenerationEU, keďže slabá inštitucionálna kvalita by mohla zabrániť prístupu k finančným prostriedkom a oslabiť účinnosť samotného programu.
The EU Presidency of Czechia organised a high-level conference in October 2022 on ‘Tackling energy poverty: EU approach & sharing best practices’. The event aimed to bring different actors together in order to strengthen the dialogue on possible solutions on how to further tackle energy poverty in the EU. This background paper, prepared at the request of the Czech Presidency, aims to contribute to the debate.
This working paper investigates the practical implementation of the European Works Council (EWC) Directive at company level. It explores the challenges faced by existing EWCs and provides examples of solutions identified and remaining issues from the point of view of both workers and management. In addition, the paper looks at how EWCs meet the requirements of the EWC Directive in terms of establishing processes of information and consultation.
Európske trhy práce sa po skončení pandémie COVID-19 výrazne obnovili. Na konci roka 2021, teda o viac ako 18 mesiacov od vypuknutia pandémie, bola miera zamestnanosti v EÚ takmer na úrovni pred krízou. Táto správa zhŕňa vývoj na trhu práce v rokoch 2020 a 2021 na základe štvrťročných údajov z prieskumu pracovných síl v EÚ. Robí tak zo štrukturálneho hľadiska, pričom sa zameriava na údaje na úrovni odvetví a povolaní a na kľúčové demografické premenné: pohlavie a vek. Aj keď sa úroveň zamestnanosti v členských štátoch EÚ vráti na úroveň pred krízou, zloženie zamestnanosti sa výrazne zmení.
The rise in cost of living and energy poverty: Social impact and policy responses. 14 October 2022, Informal Meeting of Employment and Social Affairs Ministers (EPSCO). Presentation by Ivailo Kalfin, Executive Director, Eurofound.
Pandémia ochorenia COVID-19 zvýraznila nerovnosti v mnohých aspektoch európskych spoločností vrátane nerovností medzi ženami a mužmi v niekoľkých kľúčových oblastiach. V tejto správe sa skúmajú rodové nerovnosti, ktoré existovali už pred krízou COVID-19 a opisuje sa v nej, akými spôsobmi pandémia rodové rozdiely ovplyvnila. Analyzujú sa v nej rôzne politické reakcie jednotlivých členských štátov v rámci EÚ, ktoré boli zamerané na riešenie rodových rozdielov, resp. na zabránenie ich prehlbovaniu počas pandémie.
The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This publication series include the ERM reports, as well as blogs, articles and working papers on restructuring-related events in the EU27 and Norway.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
The COVID-19 pandemic triggered an extraordinary level of provision of social services across the EU. Healthcare and care providers carried much of the burden and, together with essential services, played a crucial role in getting citizens through the crisis. This report explores how public services adapted to the new reality and what role was played by the digital transformation of services. The aim is to contribute to the documentation and analysis of changes in funding, delivery and use of healthcare and social services during the pandemic.
The use of artificial intelligence, advanced robotics and the Internet of Things technologies in the workplace can bring about fundamental changes in work organisation and working conditions. This report analyses the ethical and human implications of the use of these technologies at work by drawing on qualitative interviews with policy stakeholders, input from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents and Delphi expert surveys, and case studies.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in European sectoral social dialogue taking place at cross-sectoral level. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound’s study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations at cross-sectoral level in the EU Member States.