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  • Article
    7 júl 2003

    In his statement to parliament (Deutscher Bundestag) on 14 March 2003 about
    the government's Agenda 2010 programme of economic and social policy reforms
    (DE0303105F [1]), Chancellor Gerhard Schröder announced his intention to
    relax rules governing craft workers’ qualifications. Subsequently, on 28
    May 2003, the cabinet decided to make it easier to establish businesses in
    the craft industries. The current legislation, the Craft Trades Directive,
    stipulates that a 'master’s' certificate is the prerequisite for
    establishing or taking over a business in the craft sector. Currently,
    businesses in 94 craft industries have to be led by a qualified 'master'
    craft worker.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/chancellor-proposes-agenda-2010-to-revive-economy

  • Article
    7 júl 2003

    Over recent years, the Minister of Economy and Labour Affairs, Martin
    Bartenstein, has made several unsuccessful attempts to liberalise further the
    current regulations on shop opening hours, which were most recently amended
    in 1997 but are still seen as relatively restrictive (AT0101239N [1]). Any
    such extension of opening hours and working time was opposed by both the
    social partners and the political parties in parliament, except the
    conservative People’s Party (Österreichische Volkspartei, ÖVP)
    (AT0107221N [2]). However, in spring 2003, the coalition government of the
    ÖVP and the populist Freedom Party (Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs, FPÖ)
    reached agreement on further deregulation of the shop opening legislation.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/new-controversy-over-shop-opening-hours
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/negotiations-deadlocked-over-more-flexible-shop-opening-hours

  • Article
    7 júl 2003

    On 12 June 2003, the delegates at a special conference held in Glasgow by the
    Fire Brigades’ Union (FBU) voted three to one in favour of accepting a
    revised pay deal agreed between the local authority employers and union
    negotiators. The following day, the pay agreement [1] was formally approved
    by the National Joint Council for Local Authorities’ Fire Brigades (NJC),
    bringing to an end the long-running pay dispute within the UK fire service.

    [1] http://www.lg-employers.gov.uk/documents/pay_conditions_stats/fire/njc-1-2003.pdf

  • Article
    7 júl 2003

    On 7 June 2003, the German Metalworkers' Union (Industriegewerkschaft Metall,
    IG Metall) and the employers' association for the German steel industry
    (Arbeitgeberverband Stahl) agreed on the phasing-in of a 35-hour working week
    in the eastern German steel industry by 2009. Collectively agreed working
    time in the eastern steel industry is currently 38 hours a week, while a
    35-hour week applies in the sector in western Germany. The new framework
    agreement on employment conditions [1] (Manteltarifvertrag) now provides for
    a step-by-step reduction in standard working time as follows:

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/efemiredictionary/framework-agreement-on-employment-conditions

  • Article
    7 júl 2003

    On 25 June 2003, the Confederation of British Industry (CBI) published a
    report report [1] urging the government to protect the right of UK employees
    to work more than 48 hours a week if they choose to.

    [1] http://www.cbi.org.uk/ndbs/press.nsf/0363c1f07c6ca12a8025671c00381cc7/a25d7307dd360bf880256d4f002e09d0/$FILE/Working Time Report.pdf

  • Article
    7 júl 2003

    The reduction of working time has become a central bargaining demand for
    Hungarian trade unions at national level in recent years. In Hungary, regular
    working time is regulated virtually solely by the Labour Code, as its
    reduction is rarely an issue for sectoral or company-level collective
    agreements. The 40-hour statutory working week has not changed since 1992,
    though a minor decrease in annual working time took place in the 1990s owing
    to the introduction of new public holidays. Although the 2002 election
    programme of the Hungarian Socialist Party (Magyar Szocialista Párt,MSZP
    [1]), now the major party in the coalition government, made promises
    concerning the reduction of working time (HU0206101F [2]), until now the
    government has not acted on this issue.

    [1] http://www.mszp.hu/
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/victorious-mszp-promises-comprehensive-reform-of-industrial-relations-system

  • Article
    7 júl 2003

    According to Latvian labour law, the minimum wage paid may not be lower than
    the minimum set by the government. The national minimum wage is not linked to
    any economically-based income indicator, with the cabinet determining the
    minimum wage for 'normal-time' employees and the minimum hourly rate on the
    basis of fiscal and social considerations. From a very low level - EUR 3.48
    in 1992 (1 LVL currently equals 0.661 EUR) - the monthly minimum wage has
    increased to EUR 105.9 in 2003. The government: raised the minimum wage twice
    in 1992 (to EUR 5.07 and EUR 11.35); doubled it in 1993 (to EUR 22.70);
    raised it twice in 1994 (to EUR 34.04 and EUR 42.36); increased it in 1996
    (to EUR 57.49), 1998 (to EUR 63.54), 1999 (to EUR 75.64) and 2001 (to EUR
    90.77); and set it at EUR 105.9 from 1 January 2003.

  • Article
    7 júl 2003

    A recent statement from the managing director of the Association of Employers
    in the Danish Building Industry (Dansk Byggeri) has angered trade unions
    represented in the building industry, the General Workers' Union
    (Specialarbejderforbundet i Danmark, SiD) and the Union of Wood, Industrial
    and Building Workers (Forbundet Træ-Industri-Byg, TIB). He stated that it
    would be a sign of bad management and leadership if Danish building industry
    employers did not take advantage of the opportunity to employ workers from
    Poland and the Baltic states after they join the European Union in 1 May
    2004. Such workers could be hired at the lowest wage laid down in the
    relevant collective agreement without any difficulty. Normally Danish workers
    are paid close to the double the sector's minimum wage of DKK 94 per hour
    because of local agreements and acquired bonus entitlements. Hiring a central
    or eastern European worker on the lowest possible wage might breach the
    spirit of the wage development agreed in collective bargaining, but would not
    be against any collectively agreed or legislative provision. The employers
    also state that Danish workers on a building site will not be able to demand
    that new recruits from eastern Europe be paid at the same rate as them.

  • Article
    7 júl 2003

    On 20 June 2003, Ireland’s 270 public health doctors, represented by the
    Irish Medical Organisation (IMO), returned to work after a 10-week strike
    over a demand for concrete proposals from their employers in relation to
    improved pay, status, and terms and conditions of employment (IE0305203F
    [1]). During this time, the dispute became increasingly bitter, as the
    parties’ positions remained polarised. However, the dispute has now been
    resolved by a 'return to work formula' accepted by IMO and the Health Service
    Employers Agency (HSEA). This formula is based on a complex set of proposals
    brokered by the Labour Relations Commission (LRC), under which pay increases
    due under the local pay bargaining clauses of previous national agreements
    and the implementation of the Brennan Review of public health (this review
    was established to examine the future of public health structures, and its
    report was published in April 2002), were referred to the Public Service
    Adjudication Board.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/bitter-public-health-doctors-strike-continues

  • Article
    3 júl 2003

    This report seeks to address the question whether the structure of business
    finance in continental Europe is likely to converge towards the model
    observed in the UK and US economies where financial intermediaries,
    especially banks, play a much smaller role in the allocation of savings to
    productive investment purposes.

Series

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2003

    Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2007

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2012

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003. 

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2005

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2010

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Manufacturing employment outlook

    This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.

Forthcoming publications