Nous tentons dans la présente étude de dégager une vue d’ensemble de la
durée du temps de travail - telle qu’elle est établie par les conventions
collectives et la législation - dans l’Union européenne et la Norvège en
2002 (et 2001), basée sur les contributions des centres nationaux de
l’Observatoire européen des relations industrielles (EIRO). Pour la
première fois, nous incluons certaines données sur trois des pays candidats
qui rejoindront l’UE en 2004 - la Hongrie, la Pologne et la Slovaquie.
In June 2003, management and trade unions signed a preliminary agreement on a
unified collective agreement for two of Spain's nuclear power plants, those
at Almaraz and Trillo. This may represent the first step towards a sectoral
agreement for the sector, where bargaining currently occurs at plant level.
In summer 2003, France's Minister of Health announced that a reform of the
sickness insurance system is to be presented in the autumn. While an
increasing deficit posted by the sickness insurance funds has made this
overhaul necessary, industrial relations tensions in the healthcare sector
suggest that implementation may be problematic. The details of the reform are
as yet unknown, but the major thrust appears to be a reduction in compulsory
sickness insurance cover and the creation of specific measures for
Die Erweiterung der Europäischen Union, bei der voraussichtlich ab 2004 bis
zu 12 Länder Mittel- und Osteuropas sowie des Mittelmeerraums der EU
beitreten werden, rückt immer näher. Vor diesem Hintergrund hat das
Europäische Observatorium für die Entwicklung der Arbeitsbeziehungen (EIRO)
die Erfassung der Entwicklungen im Bereich der Arbeitsbeziehungen auf die
beitrittswilligen Länder ausgeweitet.
Arbeitskämpfe - Streiks, Aussperrungen usw. - sind einer der vorrangigsten
Aspekte von Arbeitsbeziehungen, nicht zuletzt in Bezug auf ihre Behandlung in
den Medien sowie hinsichtlich ihrer Auswirkungen auf die und ihre Beachtung
in der Öffentlichkeit. In manchen Quellen werden Arbeitskämpfe als
wichtiger Indikator für das Funktionieren von Systemen im Bereich der
Arbeitsbeziehungen betrachtet, wobei Arbeitskämpfe zum Teil als Zeichen für
die Fehlfunktion eines Systems betrachtet werden, während sie von anderen
als ein ralativ normales Merkmal eines gesunden und gut funktionierenden
Systems angesehen werden. Im Juni 2001 veröffentlichte die Europäische
Kommission eine Mitteilung über Beschäftigungs- und Sozialpolitik: ein
Konzept für Investitionen in Qualität . In diesem Dokument werden Wege
und Möglichkeiten zur Förderung der 'Qualität' in der Beschäftigungs- und
Sozialpolitik vorgeschlagen; es enthält ferner Vorschläge für eine Reihe
von Indikatoren zur Messung dieser Qualität. Einer der unter 'Sozialer
Dialog und Arbeitnehmermitbestimmung' aufgeführten Indikatoren sind 'durch
Arbeitskämpfe verlorene Arbeitstage'.
In its 2002 'Report on industrial accidents and occupational illnesses',
Spain's UGT trade union confederation examines the country's high industrial
accident and illness rate and seeks to identify the causes. These are found
to to be lack of compliance with the relevant legislation by companies, and
the high level of subcontracting, temporary contracts and temporary agency
work, which particularly affects young workers.
Les actions syndicales - grèves, lock-outs, etc. - sont l’un des aspects
les plus visibles des relations industrielles, notamment en termes de
couverture médiatique et d’impact sur le public. Ces actions sont souvent
considérées comme un indicateur important du bon fonctionnement ou non du
système de relations industrielles, les actions syndicales étant perçues
par certains comme un signe de dysfonctionnement du système alors que pour
d’autres, il s’agit d’une caractéristique assez normale d’un
système en bonne santé fonctionnant correctement. En juin 2001, la
Commission européenne a publié une communication intitulée Politiques
sociales et de l’emploi: un cadre pour investir dans la qualité . Ce
document propose différentes façons de promouvoir la 'qualité' dans
l’emploi et la politique sociale et prévoit un ensemble d’indicateurs
pour mesurer cette qualité. Un des indicateurs en termes de 'dialogue social
et participation des travailleurs' porte sur les 'journées de travail
perdues à la suite de conflits du travail'.
In summer 2003, work is due to start on a revision of the Toledo pact, the
1995 agreement on the Spanish pensions system, in the light of gloomy
demographic and expenditure forecasts. The government is seeking various
changes, notably linking pensions to contributions paid over the entire
career, the development of private pension schemes, a halt to early
retirement and an increase in the retirement age. A recent European
Commission report has contributed to the debate.
The French government is due to propose legislation after the summer 2003
parliamentary recess reforming the 'minimum integration income' (RMI) benefit
and assistance scheme for people facing labour market difficulties. Much of
the responsibility for the scheme is to be decentralised to local level,
while a new form of employment contract - the 'minimum employment income'
contract - will be introduced for people who have been receiving RMI for two
The French government was forced to amend its controversial proposals on
pension reform by wide-scale strike action and demonstrations organised in
protest on 13 May 2003. Following talks with the social partners, it revised
the plan - though not the key point of increasing the contribution period
required for a full pension - on the basis of a deal agreed by two trade
union confederations, CFDT and CFE-CGC. The talks thus led to a split in the
united trade union front on the issue, and unions opposed to the planned
reform have called more protest action. Parliamentary debate on the bill
began in June and is expected to to be completed in July.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
Automation and digitisation technologies, including artificial intelligence (AI), are undergoing a rapid evolution. This impacts working conditions in a variety of ways and raises a host of new ethical concerns. In recent times, the policy debate surrounding these concerns has become more prominent and has increasingly focused on AI. Key EU policy developments, especially in relation to AI, have shaped the policy debate in many EU Member States, and in some instances they have led to the adoption of new policy initiatives that address these concerns in the context of work and employment.
Every year, Eurofound compiles a report summarising the key developments in minimum wages across EU countries. The report explains how minimum wages are set and describes the role of social partners, covering the evolution of statutory rates, collectively agreed wages and the national debates on these issues.
As part of a process to collect information on essential services, the European Commission (DG EMPL) requested Eurofound to provide input on certain aspects of existing and planned measures in the Member States to improve access to essential services, in reference to Principle 20 of the European Pillar of Social Rights. The scope of the exercise included energy services, public transport and digital communications, and the focus was on people at risk of poverty or social exclusion (in practice, people on low incomes in most cases).
The civil aviation sector has been deeply impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. It is one of the most severe crises the sector has ever experienced, giving rise to a number of significant challenges for companies and workers alike. This study will explore the role of social dialogue and collective bargaining in how the sector is adapting to the pandemic. What kinds of changes have been introduced, either through social dialogue or collective bargaining? Are the changes temporary or permanent?
This report investigates the practical implementation of the European Works Council (EWC) Directive at company level. It explores the challenges faced by existing EWCs and provides examples of identified solutions and remaining issues from the point of view of both workers and management. The report looks at the way that EWCs meet the requirements of the EWC Directive in terms of establishing processes of information and consultation.
This report will map the existing regulations on telework in European Union Member States, including in legislation and collective agreements. It will present the most recent changes to these regulations and shed light on how the future of (tele)work could be regulated at both national and EU level, in order to improve working conditions in telework arrangements and reduce the risks associated with telework and with specific ways of working remotely.
This report explores the association between skills use and skills strategies and establishment performance, and how other workplace practices, in terms of work organisation, human resources management and employee involvement, can impact on this. It looks at how skills shortages can be addressed, at least in part, by creating an environment in which employees are facilitated and motivated to make better use of the skills they already have. This further supports the business case for a more holistic approach to management.
The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic have varied across sectors, occupations and categories of worker (for instance, according to gender, age or employment status). Hours worked have declined the most in sectors such as accommodation services and food and beverage services, and in occupations heavily reliant on in-person interaction, such as sales work. At the same time, it’s in these sectors that labour shortages have become increasingly evident as labour markets have begun to normalise.
This report focuses on trends and developments in collective bargaining that were evident from the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. It examines potential new strategic approaches and priorities incorporated in negotiation agendas, as well as collective bargaining practices and coordination at sector and company levels in the private sector.
This policy brief will provide an update on upward convergence in the economic, social and institutional dimensions of the European Union, as outlined in the European Pillar of Social Rights and its accompanying Social Scoreboard.