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  • Article
    3 júl 2003

    This report seeks to address the question whether the structure of business
    finance in continental Europe is likely to converge towards the model
    observed in the UK and US economies where financial intermediaries,
    especially banks, play a much smaller role in the allocation of savings to
    productive investment purposes.

  • Article
    1 júl 2003

    A seminar on corporate social responsibility (CSR) held in Portugal in June
    2003 aimed to promote debate on the issue with a view to improving
    understanding of the principles and practices involved. The occasion
    presented the social partners with an opportunity to give their views on CSR,
    and they all stressed that one of the prerequisites in Portugal is respect
    for existing laws on economic activity, employment and the environment.

  • CAR
    30 jún 2003

    The comparative study was compiled on the basis of individual national
    reports submitted by EIRO's national centres. The text of each of these
    national reports is available below in Word format. The reports have not been
    edited or approved by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living
    and Working Conditions. The national reports were drawn up in response to a
    questionnaire [1] and should be read in conjunction with it.


  • Article
    30 jún 2003

    Die Arbeitskosten, also alle Aufwendungen, die einem Arbeitgeber durch die
    Beschäftigung von Arbeitskräften entstehen, bilden zweifellos den Dreh- und
    Angelpunkt der Arbeitsbeziehungen. Zu den Hauptbestandteilen der
    Gesamtarbeitskosten, wie sie Eurostat im Einklang mit der von der
    International Conference of Labour Statisticians vereinbarten internationalen
    Begriffsbestimmung [1] definierte, zählen die Arbeitnehmerentgelte (darunter
    Löhne und Gehälter), die Sozialbeiträge der Arbeitnehmer, Aufwendungen
    für die berufliche Bildung und Steuern zu Lasten des Arbeitsgebers. Die
    Höhe des Direktentgelts wird in den meisten europäischen Ländern in
    Tarifverhandlungen festgelegt oder von diesen stark beeinflusst. Zugleich
    nehmen die Sozialpartner in zahlreichen Ländern (über Verhandlungen oder
    auf anderem Wege) auch auf Faktoren wie die Höhe der
    Arbeitgebersozialbeiträge oder die Aufwendungen für die berufliche Bildung
    Einfluss. Man könnte also mit Fug und Recht behaupten, dass es bei den
    Arbeitsbeziehungen zu einem großen Teil um die Festlegung der Arbeitskosten


  • Article
    29 jún 2003

    Measures implemented by companies to help their employees in reconciling work
    and family responsibilities are still relatively rare in Italy. However, the
    findings of a survey, published in 2003, highlight a number of interesting
    'family-friendly' schemes introduced by Italian companies in recent years.
    The survey indicates that these companies provide a varied mix of measures,
    including innovative working time arrangements and telework, company services
    for families and childcare, allowances and benefits, and specific
    career-support measures for employees with family commitments.

  • Article
    29 jún 2003

    Hungary, with an average per capita GDP of less than 75% of the EU average,
    expects to use approximately HUF 1,100 billion to HUF 1,600 billion (EUR 4.4
    billion to EUR 6.4 billion) of money from the Community Structural and
    Cohesion Funds – Hungarian co-financing included – over the period
    between its accession to the Union on 1 May 2004 and the end of 2006.
    Pursuant to EU Council Regulation (EC) No. 1260/1999 [1] laying down general
    provisions on the Structural Funds, eligible countries are expected to
    prepare their development objectives and priorities in the framework of
    National Development Plans (NDPs) and submit them to the European Commission.
    These NDPs will be the basis for discussions with the Commission which will
    produce Community Support Frameworks (CSFs) containing the financial
    commitments of the EU and the government of the recipient country concerning
    spending on jointly financed development areas. According to Article 8 of the
    Council Regulation, partnership between the national government and social as
    well as civil actors is a key component of the Plans. The application of the
    principle of partnership should be extended to the preparation, financing,
    monitoring and evaluation of Community grants.


  • Article
    29 jún 2003

    In May 2003, Schiesser Pallas, a subsidiary of the German apparel
    multinational, Schiesser AG, announced that it was to close down its sewing
    operations in Greece, citing relatively high labour costs compared with
    countries such as Bulgaria and Romania. Despite detailed trade union
    counter-proposals, consultations failed to produce results and 500
    redundancies are expected soon.

  • Article
    26 jún 2003

    The major industrial dispute over a new collective agreement for blue-collar
    workers in the municipal and city council sector (SE0305101N [1]) was due to
    escalate in the first week of June 2003. Some 47,000 members of the Municipal
    Workers' Union (Svenska Kommunalarbetareförbundet, Kommunal) were already on
    indefinite strike across the country since the previous week and the union
    gave notice of a further strike from 4 June by 18,000 bus drivers in Sweden's
    three largest cities. Stockholm, Göteborg and Malmö, plus 137
    municipalities (out of 290), were thus due to be hard hit by industrial
    action. The Union of Service and Communication (Facket för Service och
    Kommunikation, Seko) had also given notice of a sympathy strike by all 400
    train drivers on commuter services in the three cities, adding to the
    expected traffic chaos.


  • Article
    26 jún 2003

    January 2003 saw the first genuine strikes organised in Slovakia since it
    became independent in 1993 (SK0211103F [1]). The strikes took place on the
    railways as a consequence of long-term disputes between trade unions and
    management. Railworkers had previously been on the verge of strike action on
    several occasions in recent years. In late 1998 there were calls for a
    strike, while in the following year trade unions set a strike date during
    lengthy negotiations on pay increases. However, the negotiations led to a
    compromise with railways management and the planned strike was cancelled. In
    2001, a two-hour strike was announced by the trade unions but cancelled one
    hour before it was due to start because of a lack of organisational


  • Article
    26 jún 2003

    In April 2003, a new law on 'social employment' came into force in Poland,
    aimed at providing support and employment to up to the country's large number
    of people faced with social exclusion, such as long-term unemployed people,
    alcoholics and drug addicts, former prisoners, and people with mental
    illnesses. The legislation sets up social integration centres to provide
    assistance and integration programmes, and creates a system of subsidised
    employment to encourage employers to take on people from the target groups.


  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications