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  • Article
    7 júl 2003

    On 25 June 2003, the Confederation of British Industry (CBI) published a
    report report [1] urging the government to protect the right of UK employees
    to work more than 48 hours a week if they choose to.

    [1]$FILE/Working Time Report.pdf

  • Article
    7 júl 2003

    On 7 June 2003, the German Metalworkers' Union (Industriegewerkschaft Metall,
    IG Metall) and the employers' association for the German steel industry
    (Arbeitgeberverband Stahl) agreed on the phasing-in of a 35-hour working week
    in the eastern German steel industry by 2009. Collectively agreed working
    time in the eastern steel industry is currently 38 hours a week, while a
    35-hour week applies in the sector in western Germany. The new framework
    agreement on employment conditions [1] (Manteltarifvertrag) now provides for
    a step-by-step reduction in standard working time as follows:


  • Article
    7 júl 2003

    The reduction of working time has become a central bargaining demand for
    Hungarian trade unions at national level in recent years. In Hungary, regular
    working time is regulated virtually solely by the Labour Code, as its
    reduction is rarely an issue for sectoral or company-level collective
    agreements. The 40-hour statutory working week has not changed since 1992,
    though a minor decrease in annual working time took place in the 1990s owing
    to the introduction of new public holidays. Although the 2002 election
    programme of the Hungarian Socialist Party (Magyar Szocialista Párt,MSZP
    [1]), now the major party in the coalition government, made promises
    concerning the reduction of working time (HU0206101F [2]), until now the
    government has not acted on this issue.


  • Article
    7 júl 2003

    According to Latvian labour law, the minimum wage paid may not be lower than
    the minimum set by the government. The national minimum wage is not linked to
    any economically-based income indicator, with the cabinet determining the
    minimum wage for 'normal-time' employees and the minimum hourly rate on the
    basis of fiscal and social considerations. From a very low level - EUR 3.48
    in 1992 (1 LVL currently equals 0.661 EUR) - the monthly minimum wage has
    increased to EUR 105.9 in 2003. The government: raised the minimum wage twice
    in 1992 (to EUR 5.07 and EUR 11.35); doubled it in 1993 (to EUR 22.70);
    raised it twice in 1994 (to EUR 34.04 and EUR 42.36); increased it in 1996
    (to EUR 57.49), 1998 (to EUR 63.54), 1999 (to EUR 75.64) and 2001 (to EUR
    90.77); and set it at EUR 105.9 from 1 January 2003.

  • Article
    7 júl 2003

    A recent statement from the managing director of the Association of Employers
    in the Danish Building Industry (Dansk Byggeri) has angered trade unions
    represented in the building industry, the General Workers' Union
    (Specialarbejderforbundet i Danmark, SiD) and the Union of Wood, Industrial
    and Building Workers (Forbundet Træ-Industri-Byg, TIB). He stated that it
    would be a sign of bad management and leadership if Danish building industry
    employers did not take advantage of the opportunity to employ workers from
    Poland and the Baltic states after they join the European Union in 1 May
    2004. Such workers could be hired at the lowest wage laid down in the
    relevant collective agreement without any difficulty. Normally Danish workers
    are paid close to the double the sector's minimum wage of DKK 94 per hour
    because of local agreements and acquired bonus entitlements. Hiring a central
    or eastern European worker on the lowest possible wage might breach the
    spirit of the wage development agreed in collective bargaining, but would not
    be against any collectively agreed or legislative provision. The employers
    also state that Danish workers on a building site will not be able to demand
    that new recruits from eastern Europe be paid at the same rate as them.

  • Article
    7 júl 2003

    On 20 June 2003, Ireland’s 270 public health doctors, represented by the
    Irish Medical Organisation (IMO), returned to work after a 10-week strike
    over a demand for concrete proposals from their employers in relation to
    improved pay, status, and terms and conditions of employment (IE0305203F
    [1]). During this time, the dispute became increasingly bitter, as the
    parties’ positions remained polarised. However, the dispute has now been
    resolved by a 'return to work formula' accepted by IMO and the Health Service
    Employers Agency (HSEA). This formula is based on a complex set of proposals
    brokered by the Labour Relations Commission (LRC), under which pay increases
    due under the local pay bargaining clauses of previous national agreements
    and the implementation of the Brennan Review of public health (this review
    was established to examine the future of public health structures, and its
    report was published in April 2002), were referred to the Public Service
    Adjudication Board.


  • Article
    3 júl 2003

    This report seeks to address the question whether the structure of business
    finance in continental Europe is likely to converge towards the model
    observed in the UK and US economies where financial intermediaries,
    especially banks, play a much smaller role in the allocation of savings to
    productive investment purposes.

  • Article
    1 júl 2003

    A seminar on corporate social responsibility (CSR) held in Portugal in June
    2003 aimed to promote debate on the issue with a view to improving
    understanding of the principles and practices involved. The occasion
    presented the social partners with an opportunity to give their views on CSR,
    and they all stressed that one of the prerequisites in Portugal is respect
    for existing laws on economic activity, employment and the environment.

  • CAR
    30 jún 2003

    The comparative study was compiled on the basis of individual national
    reports submitted by EIRO's national centres. The text of each of these
    national reports is available below in Word format. The reports have not been
    edited or approved by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living
    and Working Conditions. The national reports were drawn up in response to a
    questionnaire [1] and should be read in conjunction with it.


  • Article
    30 jún 2003

    Die Arbeitskosten, also alle Aufwendungen, die einem Arbeitgeber durch die
    Beschäftigung von Arbeitskräften entstehen, bilden zweifellos den Dreh- und
    Angelpunkt der Arbeitsbeziehungen. Zu den Hauptbestandteilen der
    Gesamtarbeitskosten, wie sie Eurostat im Einklang mit der von der
    International Conference of Labour Statisticians vereinbarten internationalen
    Begriffsbestimmung [1] definierte, zählen die Arbeitnehmerentgelte (darunter
    Löhne und Gehälter), die Sozialbeiträge der Arbeitnehmer, Aufwendungen
    für die berufliche Bildung und Steuern zu Lasten des Arbeitsgebers. Die
    Höhe des Direktentgelts wird in den meisten europäischen Ländern in
    Tarifverhandlungen festgelegt oder von diesen stark beeinflusst. Zugleich
    nehmen die Sozialpartner in zahlreichen Ländern (über Verhandlungen oder
    auf anderem Wege) auch auf Faktoren wie die Höhe der
    Arbeitgebersozialbeiträge oder die Aufwendungen für die berufliche Bildung
    Einfluss. Man könnte also mit Fug und Recht behaupten, dass es bei den
    Arbeitsbeziehungen zu einem großen Teil um die Festlegung der Arbeitskosten



  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This publication series include the ERM reports, as well as blogs, articles and working papers on restructuring-related events in the EU27 and Norway.

  • European Working Conditions Telephone Survey 2021

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Developments in working life, industrial relations and working conditions in the EU

    This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

Forthcoming publications