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  • Article
    25 jún 2003

    Arbeitskämpfe - Streiks, Aussperrungen usw. - sind einer der vorrangigsten
    Aspekte von Arbeitsbeziehungen, nicht zuletzt in Bezug auf ihre Behandlung in
    den Medien sowie hinsichtlich ihrer Auswirkungen auf die und ihre Beachtung
    in der Öffentlichkeit. In manchen Quellen werden Arbeitskämpfe als
    wichtiger Indikator für das Funktionieren von Systemen im Bereich der
    Arbeitsbeziehungen betrachtet, wobei Arbeitskämpfe zum Teil als Zeichen für
    die Fehlfunktion eines Systems betrachtet werden, während sie von anderen
    als ein ralativ normales Merkmal eines gesunden und gut funktionierenden
    Systems angesehen werden. Im Juni 2001 veröffentlichte die Europäische
    Kommission eine Mitteilung über Beschäftigungs- und Sozialpolitik: ein
    Konzept für Investitionen in Qualität [1]. In diesem Dokument werden Wege
    und Möglichkeiten zur Förderung der 'Qualität' in der Beschäftigungs- und
    Sozialpolitik vorgeschlagen; es enthält ferner Vorschläge für eine Reihe
    von Indikatoren zur Messung dieser Qualität. Einer der unter 'Sozialer
    Dialog und Arbeitnehmermitbestimmung' aufgeführten Indikatoren sind 'durch
    Arbeitskämpfe verlorene Arbeitstage'.


  • Article
    25 jún 2003

    Les actions syndicales - grèves, lock-outs, etc. - sont l’un des aspects
    les plus visibles des relations industrielles, notamment en termes de
    couverture médiatique et d’impact sur le public. Ces actions sont souvent
    considérées comme un indicateur important du bon fonctionnement ou non du
    système de relations industrielles, les actions syndicales étant perçues
    par certains comme un signe de dysfonctionnement du système alors que pour
    d’autres, il s’agit d’une caractéristique assez normale d’un
    système en bonne santé fonctionnant correctement. En juin 2001, la
    Commission européenne a publié une communication intitulée Politiques
    sociales et de l’emploi: un cadre pour investir dans la qualité [1]. Ce
    document propose différentes façons de promouvoir la 'qualité' dans
    l’emploi et la politique sociale et prévoit un ensemble d’indicateurs
    pour mesurer cette qualité. Un des indicateurs en termes de 'dialogue social
    et participation des travailleurs' porte sur les 'journées de travail
    perdues à la suite de conflits du travail'.


  • Article
    25 jún 2003

    In summer 2003, work is due to start on a revision of the Toledo pact, the
    1995 agreement on the Spanish pensions system, in the light of gloomy
    demographic and expenditure forecasts. The government is seeking various
    changes, notably linking pensions to contributions paid over the entire
    career, the development of private pension schemes, a halt to early
    retirement and an increase in the retirement age. A recent European
    Commission report has contributed to the debate.

  • Article
    25 jún 2003

    The French government is due to propose legislation after the summer 2003
    parliamentary recess reforming the 'minimum integration income' (RMI) benefit
    and assistance scheme for people facing labour market difficulties. Much of
    the responsibility for the scheme is to be decentralised to local level,
    while a new form of employment contract - the 'minimum employment income'
    contract - will be introduced for people who have been receiving RMI for two

  • Article
    25 jún 2003

    The French government was forced to amend its controversial proposals on
    pension reform by wide-scale strike action and demonstrations organised in
    protest on 13 May 2003. Following talks with the social partners, it revised
    the plan - though not the key point of increasing the contribution period
    required for a full pension - on the basis of a deal agreed by two trade
    union confederations, CFDT and CFE-CGC. The talks thus led to a split in the
    united trade union front on the issue, and unions opposed to the planned
    reform have called more protest action. Parliamentary debate on the bill
    began in June and is expected to to be completed in July.

  • Article
    25 jún 2003

    Der Bericht vermittelt einen Überblick über die - in Tarifverträgen
    vereinbarte und gesetzlich geregelte - Dauer der Arbeitszeit in der
    Europäischen Union und in Norwegen im Jahr 2002 (und 2001), der auf den
    Beiträgen der nationalen Zentren des Europäischen Observatoriums für die
    Entwicklung der Arbeitsbeziehungen (EIRO) basiert. Zum ersten Mal
    berücksichtigen wir auch Daten von drei der Kandidatenländern, die 2004 in
    die EU aufgenommen werden: Ungarn, Polen und die Slowakei.

  • Article
    24 jún 2003

    During 2003, Italian trade unions - and especially the Cisl confederation -
    have been repeatedly threatened and attacked by terrorist groups (with 43
    such attacks, including 12 fire-bombings, recorded between July 2002 and May
    2003). The minister of the interior has highlighted the threat to unions in
    parliament and in June the three main confederations agreed a united response
    to the attacks.

  • Article
    24 jún 2003

    The Chancellor of the Exchequer’s budget statement on 9 April 2003
    contained a commitment to introduce measures to ensure that pay systems in
    the public services become more responsive to differences in labour market
    conditions between the UK’s regions. In particular, the pay review bodies
    which determine levels of pay for 40% of the public service workforce would
    have a new remit to take into account regional and local factors. To augment
    the economic data available to negotiators and pay review bodies, the
    government also announced plans to publish regional inflation figures.
    Supporting its proposals, the government cited evidence from its 2002 review
    of the public sector labour market which showed that wages in the public
    sector vary far less than those in the private sector. The review found that
    'public-sector workers outside of London are probably better paid than their
    private-sector counterparts. But those in London are worse off than
    equivalent workers in the private sector' (quoted in the /Financial Times/,
    11 April 2003). The review concluded that the problem lay with national pay
    bargaining and review body arrangements.

  • Article
    24 jún 2003

    On 13 June 2003, the Norwegian government issued a proposal for new
    legislation relating to gender quotas on company boards. The aim is to
    achieve a 40% share of female board members in both larger private firms and
    public enterprises. The proposed legislation would be made applicable to
    private companies only if they fail voluntarily to achieve an acceptable
    level of female representation on their boards. The government's proposal
    comes against the backdrop of an increasing awareness of the low presence of
    women on company boards in Norway. The government sees this as an equal
    opportunities issue and argues that the business and industry community is
    not doing enough to avail itself of the competences and qualifications of
    both women and men.

  • Article
    24 jún 2003

    In June 2003, the Cologne Institute for Business Research (Institut der
    deutschen Wirtschaft, IW [1]) published a report which finds that a 40-hour
    working week (or longer) is still a reality for 44% of all employees in
    eastern Germany. Moreover, only slightly more than one-fifth of all west
    German employees have a 35-hour week, while over half work 38 hours a week or
    more. The figures - see table 1 below - indicate that the 35-hour week is
    less common in Germany than is commonly thought.



  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications