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  • Article
    23 jún 2003

    The European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) held its10th statutory congress
    [1] in Prague on 26-29 May 2003, under the slogan 'Make Europe work for the
    people'. ETUC currently has 78 member organisations (national trade union
    confederations and centres) from 34 countries in western, central and eastern
    Europe, as well as 11 sectoral European industry federations, making a total
    of 60 million affiliated members. The congress is the supreme authority of
    ETUC and meets every four years (the ninth congress was held in 1999 -
    EU9907182F [2]). The congress is composed of delegates from the affiliated
    organisations in proportion to their membership. It elects the members of the
    executive committee, the president, the general secretary and the two deputy
    general secretaries.


  • Article
    23 jún 2003

    The government announced in May 2003 that it intends to introduce legislation
    on corporate manslaughter, with details to follow in the autumn. The home
    secretary, David Blunkett, said: 'there is great public concern at the
    criminal law's lack of success in convicting companies of manslaughter where
    a death has occurred due to gross negligence by the organisation as a whole.
    The law needs to be clear and effective in order to secure public confidence
    and must bite properly on large corporations whose failure to set or maintain
    standards causes a death.'

  • Article
    23 jún 2003

    On 8 May 2003, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) ruled (in case C-171/01
    [1] /Wählergruppe Gemeinsam Zajedno v Birlikte Alternative und Grüne
    GewerkschafterInnen/UG/) that the Republic of Austria must allow employees of
    Turkish nationality to be eligible to stand as candidates for election to the
    general assembly of the Chamber of Labour (Arbeiterkammer, AK). The judgment
    resulted from a case referred by the Austrian Constitutional Court
    (Verfassungsgerichtshof, VfGH) to the ECJ for a preliminary ruling in March
    2001. The VfGH - Austria's highest court for matters including elections to
    statutory representative bodies in the industrial relations field, such as
    the Chamber of Labour - had referred the matter to the ECJ since the former's
    members had been undecided as to whether Community law was in conflict with
    the Austrian legislation which excludes workers who are citizens of countries
    outside the European Economic Area (EEA) from eligibility to stand for
    election as officers in the Chamber of Labour (AT9802168N [2]).


  • Article
    23 jún 2003

    This article outlines a range of initiatives being undertaken by the UK's
    Trades Union Congress (TUC) and its affiliated unions aimed at combating
    disability discrimination and promoting equal rights for workers with
    disabilities, in the context of 2003 being designated by the EU as the
    European Year of People with Disabilities [1] (EU0209201N [2]), and
    European-level social partner statements in this area.


  • Article
    23 jún 2003

    Since autumn 2002, trade unions representing staff employed in the French
    state education system have been taking industrial action in opposition to
    the government’s planned reforms in areas including pensions,
    decentralisation and budget cuts. After an 11th day of strike action and
    protests on 10 June 2003, the government made some progress in placating the
    unions. Whatever the outcome of this dispute, it is probable that the
    discontent among teachers, who have been highly mobilised for months, will be

  • Article
    23 jún 2003

    According to a representative survey of 1,001 firms with fewer than six
    employees carried out by the Forsa Society for Social Research and
    Statistical Analysis (Gesellschaft für Sozialforschung und statistische
    Analysen mbH, forsa [1]) in March 2003, many small firms of this size have
    encountered difficulties owing to Germany's dismissal protection [2]
    legislation over the past five years. The protective legislation currently
    applies to employers with more than five employees. The survey finds that
    since 1998, among firms with four or five employees, 14% and 15% respectively
    have had negative experiences related to this legislation. One in seven small
    firms in the representative survey state that they have not created new jobs
    due to the strict dismissal protection legislation which applies when their
    workforce exceeds five. For enterprises with four or five employees, which
    would be most immediately affected if they employed additional staff, this
    figure increases to 27% and 31% respectively - see the table below.


  • Article
    23 jún 2003

    In March 2002, the central EU-level social partners agreed a 'framework of
    actions [1] ' for the lifelong development of competencies and qualifications
    (EU0204210F [2]). The signatories were: the European Trade Union
    Confederation (ETUC) - whose delegation included representatives of the
    liaison committee for managerial and professional staff, which brings
    together the ETUC-affiliated Council of European Professional and Managerial
    Staff (EUROCADRES) and the independent European Confederation of Executives
    and Managerial Staff (CEC); the Union of Industrial and Employers'
    Confederations of Europe (UNICE), in cooperation with the European
    Association of Craft and Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (UEAPME); and the
    European Centre of Enterprises with Public Participation and of Enterprises
    of General Economic Interest (CEEP). The framework identified the following
    four priority areas for action:


  • Article
    23 jún 2003

    In March 2003, the Institute for Economic and Social Research within the Hans
    Böckler Foundation (Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaftliches Institut in
    der Hans-Böckler-Stiftung, WSI) presented the first results of its third
    works and staff council survey (published in a special issue [1] of
    /WSI-Mitteilungen/, Vol. 56, No. 3, 2003). The survey was carried out in
    summer 2002 and included a representative sample of establishments with 20 or
    more employees. The principal aim of the survey is to give a current overview
    of the situation of works council [2] s and (public sector) staff council [3]
    s in Germany and to monitor industrial relations at establishment level. A
    special evaluation of the survey data provides information on implementation
    of the 2001 reform of the Works Constitution [4] Act
    (Betriebsverfassungsgesetz, BetrVG) (DE0107234F [5]) with regard to the
    promotion of the representation of women on works councils and of equal
    opportunities for men and women at company level ('Gleichstellung von Frauen
    und Männern in der betrieblichen Interessenvertretung', Christina Klenner
    and Christiane Lindecke, in /WSI-Mitteilungen/, Vol. 56, No. 3, 2003).


  • Article
    20 jún 2003

    Dans l’Union européenne, l’année 2002 a en général été marquée par
    un ralentissement de la croissance économique, une hausse du chômage et une
    recrudescence de l’inflation. Il n’est pas surprenant dans ce contexte
    que les salaires - et notamment les appels à la modération salariale -
    aient revêtu autant sinon davantage d’importance dans les relations
    industrielles. Par ailleurs, l’évolution des salaires a plus que jamais
    été un thème phare en 2002, année où l’Union économique et monétaire
    (UEM) de l’UE est entrée dans une nouvelle phase avec l’introduction des
    billets et des pièces en euros dans les 12 pays de la 'zone euro'. Les
    avancées de l’UEM impliquent que les pays de la zone euro ne pouvant plus
    utiliser les taux de change et les taux d’intérêt comme moyens de
    compensation des déséquilibres des performances économiques, la politique
    salariale a dû jouer un rôle de plus en plus important pour corriger ces
    déséquilibres. En outre, dans le cadre de l’UEM, l’évolution des
    salaires constitue un facteur clé pour déterminer si l’économie de
    l’UE connaît une tendance inflationniste ou déflationniste.
    L’introduction de l’euro a par ailleurs amélioré la transparence en
    matière de comparaison des niveaux de salaire en Europe.

  • Article
    20 jún 2003

    In der gesamten Europäischen Union war 2002 generell ein Jahr, in dem sich
    das Wirtschaftswachstum verlangsamte, die Arbeitslosigkeit zunahm und sich
    die Inflation verstärkte. Es ist nicht überraschend, dass in diesem Kontext
    die Entlohnung - und insbesondere Aufforderungen in Bezug auf maßvolle
    Lohnforderungen - ihre zentrale Bedeutung für die Arbeitsbeziehungen behielt
    und sogar noch ausbaute. Zudem standen im Jahr 2002 die Lohnentwicklungen
    stärker als je zuvor im Brennpunkt des Interesses, da in diesem Jahr die
    Wirtschafts- und Währungsunion (WWU) der EU mit der Einführung von
    Euro-Banknoten und -Münzen in den zwölf Ländern des 'Euro-Gebiets' in eine
    neue Phase trat. Der Fortschritt der WWU bedeutet, dass sich die
    Aufmerksamkeit mehr und mehr auf die Entlohnung als Mittel für die Anpassung
    an wirtschaftliche Ungleichgewichte richten wird, da die Länder des
    Euro-Gebiets für derartige Anpassungen keine Wechselkurse und Zinssätze
    mehr verwenden können. Ferner sind innerhalb der WWU die Lohnentwicklungen
    ein Schlüsselfaktor dafür, ob sich die Wirtschaft der EU in Richtung einer
    Inflation oder einer Deflation entwickelt. Durch die Einführung des Euro
    sind Lohnvergleiche innerhalb Europas auch transparenter geworden.


  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications