Megatrends, such as digitalisation, globalisation, demographic change and climate change, are transforming the world of work, with knock-on effects for working conditions and job quality. Against this background, this report examines working conditions and job quality from a sectoral perspective, using data from the 2015 European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS). The report first outlines the sectoral characteristics underpinning employment – economic structure, demographics, occupational level and employment status.
The gender pay gap in gross hourly earnings in the EU was 14.8% in 2018. To help combat discriminatory pay practices by employers, the European Commission recommended in 2014 the introduction of pay transparency measures in all Member States. But more than half still have not implemented any such measures. Ursula von der Leyen announced in 2019 the Commission’s intention to table measures introducing binding pay transparency measures as part of new anti-discrimination legislation. Where do Member States currently stand on the agenda?
In the context of the ongoing trend of a fall in collective bargaining coverage, and recent calls at EU level to promote collective bargaining coverage as an instrument to support fair and decent wages, new data from Eurofound’s fourth European Company Survey (ECS) show that two-thirds of workers (in private sector establishments with more than 10 employees in the EU) are estimated to have their wages set via a collective wage agreement.
The exponential growth of COVID-19 cases across Europe this autumn has quickly erased hopes that the virus had been contained and confirmed the surge of another wave of the pandemic. With Member States now implementing new restrictive measures for the second time since March in an attempt to control the virus, the COVID-19 crisis has become a health, economic and social crisis.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the education sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of Eurofound’s representativeness studies is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the field of industrial relations in the EU Member States.
Táto správa vychádza zo štvrtého Európskeho prieskumu podnikov (ECS), ktorý v roku 2019 uskutočnila nadácia Eurofound spoločne so strediskom Cedefop. Opisuje širokú škálu postupov a stratégií uplatňovaných európskymi podnikmi, pokiaľ ide o organizáciu práce, riadenie ľudských zdrojov, využívanie a rozvoj zručností a vyjadrovanie názorov zamestnancov. V správe sa ukazuje, ako sa tieto postupy kombinujú a ako tieto výsledné „súbory postupov“ súvisia s dvomi výsledkami, ktoré sú prospešné pre zamestnancov i zamestnávateľov: s dobrými podmienkami na pracovisku a výkonnosťou podniku.
Právo na prístup ku kvalitným službám starostlivosti je zdôraznené v Európskom pilieri sociálnych práv. Táto správa sa zameriava na tri služby starostlivosti: vzdelávanie a starostlivosť v ranom detstve (VSRD), zdravotnú starostlivosť a dlhodobú starostlivosť. Bolo preukázané, že prístup k týmto službám prispieva k znižovaniu nerovností počas života a k dosiahnutiu rovnosti žien a osôb so zdravotným postihnutím.
As Europe faces into what appears to be a second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, concern is mounting about the evolution and dramatic impact of the disease, with rising numbers of infections, hospitalisations and deaths. There is also a growing focus on the repercussions for the economy, the labour market, the way we will live and work (or not) over the coming period. How we respond to these extraordinary times will shape the future of our societies for decades, and understanding the lived experiences of citizens is critical to developing the most relevant and effective policies to tackle the fallout of this pandemic in the coming years.
The uneven impact of the 2008–2013 economic crisis on Member States brought upward convergence to the fore in EU political debates. The focus was on orienting social policy towards getting the EU back on track, as encapsulated in the European Pillar of Social Rights. However, the meaning of the concept was unclear. Eurofound filled this gap, defining upward convergence as an improvement in performance alongside a reduction in disparities among Member States in a given socioeconomic indicator.
This report presents the findings of the Living, working and COVID-19 e-survey, carried out by Eurofound to capture the far-reaching implications of the pandemic for the way people live and work across Europe. The survey was fielded online, among respondents who were reached via Eurofound’s stakeholders and social media advertising. Two rounds of the e-survey have been carried out to date: one in April, when most Member States were in lockdown, and one in July, when society and economies were slowly re-opening.
Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2020, the seventh edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.
While often considered staid, social partner organisations have developed different ways of using technology to communicate with their members, as well as to organise, mobilise and develop both internally, among staff, and externally, vis-à-vis members and the public. This topical update maps current practices in social partner organisations, describes developments in the use of technologies, and outlines the impact on social partner activities and organisation.
Building on Eurofound’s previous research on youth, this report examines the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on young people, in particular their economic and social situation, with a focus on employment. It will also estimate how the NEET population – young people not in employment, education or training – has changed in size and composition over the last decade, and how the current crisis might affect this.
This report sets out the major findings of the European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) 2020, the seventh edition of this survey. Based on interviews with approximately 45,000 workers in 37 European countries, the EWCS 2020 looks at different aspects of their working life – working time, work organisation, work–life balance and work-related health issues. The survey provides up-to-date and objective data to policymakers and researchers on working conditions and the quality of work and employment in Europe, to help improve working lives for all people at work.
What have been the major trends and policy developments regarding digitalisation in Europe? What do we know about the deployment of automation, digitisation and the platform economy? This flagship publication provides an overview of developments in Europe in recent years, as well as mapping the observable or expected effects on employment and working conditions, as well as exploring the implications from a policy perspective.
Based on data from the European Company Survey 2019, this policy brief investigates associations between innovation and the implementation of workplace practices in companies. It examines the characteristics of innovative companies and the associations between their workplace practices and performance and well-being. It also investigates differences between workplace practices of innovative and non-innovative companies. Data gathered from case studies is used to shed light on the motives and processes of innovative companies.
While unemployment is still a challenge in Europe, some countries, sectors and occupations are experiencing labour shortages. This report explores various approaches to identifying labour shortages and maps national policy debates around the issue. It documents public and social partner interventions to tackle labour shortages, such as measures fostering geographic or occupational mobility, addressing skills shortages and underinvestment in skills, improving working and employment conditions, and better matching procedures.
This flagship report incorporates updated data on trends and all the main findings produced over the course of Eurofound’s research on upward convergence in the EU. Specifically, it provides an overarching and comprehensive discussion on convergence in the dimensions of employment, working conditions, living conditions and other socioeconomic factors.
Based on data from the European Company Survey 2019, this report aims to offer a better understanding of how skills mismatches are related with skills strategies, approaches to and challenges in recruitment, and other workplace practices with regard to work organisation, human resource management and employee involvement. The report will also look at the assocations of skills mismatches with workplace well-being and establishment performance.
The issue of regional convergence and whether disadvantaged regions are catching up with wealthier regions continues to attract enormous attention in the policy debate. This report presents the findings of an investigation into the evolution of social imbalances across EU regions over time, based on indicators including unemployment, social exclusion and poverty. It also examines various aspects of the relationship between growth, regional disparities and interpersonal inequalities.
This policy brief uses the data from the European Company Survey 2019 to examine the workplace practices of export-oriented companies and to analyse how these practices relate to outcomes. It also examines why these companies choose the workplace practices they adopt.