Eurofound publishes its work in a range of publication formats to match audience needs and the nature of the output. These include flagship reports on a particular area of activity, research reports summarising the findings of a research project and policy briefs presenting policy pointers from
research projects or facts and figures relevant to policy debates. Also included are blog articles, regular articleson working life in Europe, presentations, working papers providing background material to ongoing or already concluded research, and reports arising from ad hoc requests by policymakers. Other corporate publications include annual reports, brochures and promotional publications. Web databases and online resources such as data visualisation applications are available in Data and resources.
For more than 30 years, the French Labour Code has allowed employees to
refuse to carry out work if they have reason to believe it presents a serious
and imminent risk to their life or health. This right is set out in Article
4131–1  of the French Labour Code and was enforced through the fourth
Auroux Law from December 1982. This legislation also obliged companies to set
up a health and safety committee  (CHSCT ) for each workplace.
On 12 November 2013, four unions which represent social work employees signed
an agreement to establish a new joint union committee. They are the
Lithuanian Education Trade Union (LŠPS ), the Lithuanian Civil Servants
Trade Union (LVTPS ), the Federation of Lithuanian Public Service Trade
Unions (LVPPF), and the Care and Social Workers Trade Union (SSDPS
‘Solidarumas’). The committee’s task is to prepare and negotiate a
sectoral collective agreement between social work employees from budgetary
social service agencies and local authorities in the municipalities. The
parties have agreed the following.
The craft sector in Italy has a consolidated system of bilateral bodies,
regulated by cross-industry agreements at national and regional levels. The
sector is also regulated by sectoral collective agreements (*IT0812059I*
). This bilateral system has ensured income support benefits for craft
workers suspended from work due to business crises.
Having successfully negotiated national interprofessional agreements on the
‘generation contract’ (*FR1209031I* ) in 2012, and on safeguarding
jobs (*FR1302011I* ) on 11 January 2013, the social partners have
completed the negotiation of a major reform of vocational training. Talks
started in September 2013 (*FR1310011I* ) and concluded on 14 December.
The supermarket chain Mercadona  is one of the biggest in Spain. It has
stores in 46 provinces in 15 autonomous communities. It employs more than
70,000 employees, most of them with open-ended contracts.
Bulgaria’s statutory national minimum wage is determined by a decree of the
Council of Ministers, in consultation with the social partners. However,
collective agreements at sectoral or company level may set a minimum wage
that is higher than the legal minimum. Against a background of economic
crisis, austerity measures and frozen wages, there have been few increases to
the minimum wage in recent years. It was BGN 240 (€122) in 2009 and was BGN
310 (€158) before this latest increase. Bulgaria remains the EU country
with the lowest minimum wage level.
A study has been carried out in Portugal on the challenges faced by women
shift workers trying to balance family and working life. The study, Shift
work defined in the feminine: What challenges to work–life balance? (in
Portuguese, 1.04 MB PDF) , was the basis for a dissertation for master’s
degree in psychology.
A new Danish study has investigated the effects of low levels of
organisational justice at the workplace on the risk of depression (Grynderup,
Mors, Hansen et al, 2013). A total of 4,237 public employees from 378 work
units in Denmark were enrolled at baseline in 2007 from the Danish PRISME
project, Psychological risk factors in the work environment and biological
mechanism for the development of stress, burnout and depression (in Danish)
This report gives an overview of working conditions, job quality, workers’ health and job sustainability in the wholesale sector (NACE 46).1 It is based mostly on the fifth European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS), which gathers data on working conditions and the quality of work across 34 European countries. Additional information on the structural characteristics of the sector is derived from Eurostat data.
This report and the accompanying 33 sectoral information sheets aim to capture the diversity prevalent across sectors in Europe in terms of working conditions and job quality. The information sheets indicate how workers in each sector compare to the European average for all workers, as well as highlighting differences and similarities among different groups of workers. The report pinpoints trends across sectors in areas such as working time and work–life balance, work organisation, skills and training, employee representation and the psychosocial and physical environment. It identifies sectors that score particularly well or particularly poorly in terms of job quality and sheds light on differences between sectors in terms of health and well-being.