Working conditions and sustainable work

Delovne razmere in trajnostno delo: analiza na podlagi okvira za kakovost delovnih mest

Flagship report
Objavljeno
26 Februar 2021
pdf
Formats and languages
Executive summary in 22 languages
Prenesi

Ključne ugotovitve

  • Na splošno so delovne razmere delavcev v EU zdaj boljše kot na začetku tisočletja. Kakovost delovnega časa se je zelo izboljšala, pa tudi fizično okolje je boljše, zlasti tam, kjer je to najpomembnejše: v poklicih, v katerih so delavci zelo izpostavljeni fizičnim tveganjem.
Read more
  • Na splošno so delovne razmere delavcev v EU zdaj boljše kot na začetku tisočletja. Kakovost delovnega časa se je zelo izboljšala, pa tudi fizično okolje je boljše, zlasti tam, kjer je to najpomembnejše: v poklicih, v katerih so delavci zelo izpostavljeni fizičnim tveganjem.
  • Na delovnih mestih se danes zahteva več znanj in spretnosti ter se omogoča večja avtonomija kot v preteklosti. To se odraža v boljšem indeksu znanj in spretnosti ter avtonomije.
  • Razvoj znanj in spretnosti delavcev je oviran zaradi neenakega dostopa do usposabljanja, ki ga plača delodajalec, in njegove neenake uporabe. Starejši delavci se manj udeležujejo usposabljanja in razlike pri dostopu med zaposlenimi z različnimi pogodbenimi statusi so vedno večje (delo s polnim delovnim časom v primerjavi z delom s krajšim delovnim časom in pogodba za nedoločen čas v primerjavi s pogodbo za določen čas).
  • Stalna spolna segregacija na trgu dela se odraža v razlikah pri kakovosti delovnih mest med moškimi in ženskami. Toda stanje za nikogar ni idealno. Razlike med spoloma so lahko tudi v škodo moških, na primer glede fizičnega okolja.
  • Možnosti za poklicno napredovanje so se na splošno izboljšale za moške in ženske, vendar so moški ohranili prednost pri tej razsežnosti kakovosti delovnih mest. Verjetni razlog za to je neenaka delitev družinskih obveznosti, ki se kaže v daljših prekinitvah poklicne poti in drugačnih ureditvah delovnega časa za ženske.
Read less

Povzetek

V tem glavnem poročilu so povzeti ključni izsledki raziskave Eurofounda o delovnih razmerah, ki je potekala v programskem obdobju 2017–2020. Opisan je napredek pri izboljšanju delovnih razmer po letu 2000, proučeno pa je bilo tudi, ali so imeli vsi delavci enake koristi od pozitivnih sprememb. IzRead more

V tem glavnem poročilu so povzeti ključni izsledki raziskave Eurofounda o delovnih razmerah, ki je potekala v programskem obdobju 2017–2020. Opisan je napredek pri izboljšanju delovnih razmer po letu 2000, proučeno pa je bilo tudi, ali so imeli vsi delavci enake koristi od pozitivnih sprememb. Izpostavljeno je, pri katerih skupinah je tveganje za slabe delovne razmere in zapostavljenost največje. Glede na spremembe v svetu dela so opredeljeni novi izzivi za visoko kakovost delovnih mest. V poročilu so opisani tudi predlogi za ukrepe, s katerimi bi lahko še izboljšali delo in v EU dosegli poštene delovne razmere za vse.

Analiza kaže, da se kakovost delovnih mest v Evropi izboljšuje, čeprav počasi. Vendar od tega nimajo koristi vsi delavci v enakem obsegu. Poleg tega spol, starost in pogodbeni status znatno vplivajo na delovne razmere posameznika. Medtem ko digitalizacija prispeva k reševanju nekaterih vprašanj, povezanih s kakovostjo delovnih mest, ustvarja tudi nove izzive. S pandemijo covida-19 so se poslabšali trendi, povečala zaskrbljenost in poudaril pomen doseganja kakovosti delovnih mest za vse.

Read less

Formats and languages

  • Poročilo

    Število strani: 
    80
    Referenčna št.: 
    EF20021
    ISBN: 
    978-92-897-2150-9
    Kataloška št.: 
    TJ-03-21-030-EN-N
    DOI: 
    10.2806/938302
    Catalogue info

    Delovne razmere in trajnostno delo: analiza na podlagi okvira za kakovost delovnih mest

    Oblike

    Citiranje te publikacije: 

    Eurofound (2021), Working conditions and sustainable work: An analysis using the job quality framework, Challenges and prospects in the EU series, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg. 

  • Executive summary

    Referenčna št.: 
    EF20021EN1
    Catalogue info

    Delovne razmere in trajnostno delo: analiza na podlagi okvira za kakovost delovnih mest

    Avtor(-ji): 
    Eurofound

    Na voljo za prenos v 22 jezikih

    Prenesi
  • Case studies and working paper

  • Data

    List of tables

    The report has the following list of tables:

    Table 1: Change in the composition of the workforce, EU27 and the UK, 2002–2019

    Table 2: Elements of the job demands–resources model based on the EWCS

    List of figures

    The report has the following list of figures:

    Figure 1: The seven dimensions of job quality and the indicators composing each dimension

    Figure 2: Indexed change in job quality indices, EU27 and the UK, 2000–2015

    Figure 3: Physical environment index: mean and standard deviation, by occupational category, EU27 and the UK, 2000–2015

    Figure 4: Work intensity index: mean and standard deviation, by sector, EU27 and the UK, 2000–2015

    Figure 5: Work intensity index: mean and standard deviation, by country cluster, EU27 and the UK, 2000–2015

    Figure 6: Skills and discretion index: mean and standard deviation, by occupational category, EU27 and the UK, 2000–2015

    Figure 7: Skills and discretion index: mean and standard deviation, by country cluster, EU27 and the UK, 2000–2015

    Figure 8: Participation in paid training (%), by employment and contractual status, EU27 and the UK, 2005–2015

    Figure 9: Associations between working time quality and occupational category, by country cluster

    Figure 10: Working time quality index: mean and standard deviation, by country cluster, EU27 and the UK, 2000–2015

    Figure 11: Long working hours (%), by employment status, EU27 and the UK, 2000–2015

    Figure 12: Prospects index: mean and standard deviation, by occupational category, EU27 and the UK, 2005–2015

    Figure 13: Prospects index: mean and standard deviation, by country cluster, EU27 and the UK, 2005–2015

    Figure 14: Scores on Prospects index, by employment and sociodemographic characteristics, EU27 and the UK, 2005 and 2015

    Figure 15: Receipt of support from colleagues and managers (%), EU27 and the UK, 2005–2015

    Figure 16: Receipt of support from colleagues and managers (%), by age group, EU27 and the UK, 2005 and 2015

    Figure 17: Exposure to adverse social behaviour (%), by gender, EU27 and the UK, 2010 and 2015

    Figure 18: Perception of fair pay (%), by Member State and the UK, 2005–2015

    Figure 19: Perceived appropriateness of pay, by country cluster, EU27 and the UK, 2005–2015

    Figure 20: Job quality profiles: Scores on seven job quality indices, EU27 and the UK, 2015

    Figure 21: Distribution of workers according to job quality profiles, EU27 and the UK, 2015

    Figure 22: Job quality profiles of men, by job quality indices, EU27 and the UK, 2015

    Figure 23: Job quality profiles of women, by job quality indices, EU27 and the UK, 2015

    Figure 24: Distribution of employees according to predominant gender in occupation (%), by gender, EU27 and the UK, 2010 and 2015

    Figure 25: Gender of immediate manager (%), by worker’s gender, EU27 and the UK, 2005–2015

    Figure 26: Female employees reporting good prospects for career advancement and gender gap (%), EU27 and the UK, 2005–2015

    Figure 27: Good prospects for career advancement (%), by age and gender, EU27 and the UK, 2005–2015

    Figure 28: Job insecurity according to predominant gender in occupation (%), by gender, EU27 and the UK, 2010 and 2015

    Figure 29: Employability according to predominant gender in occupation (%), by gender, EU27 and the UK, 2010 and 2015

    Figure 30: Employees reporting difficulty making ends meet according to occupation type (%), by gender, EU27 and the UK, 2015

    Figure 31: Employees reporting difficulty making ends meet according to household type (%), by gender, EU27 and the UK, 2015

    Figure 32: Employee experience of selected emotional demands (%), by gender, EU27 and the UK, 2010 and 2015

    Figure 33: Average weekly working hours of employees across the life course, by gender, EU27 and the UK, 2015

    Figure 34: Flexibility to take time off according to predominant gender in occupation (%), by gender, EU27 and the UK, 2010 and 2015

    Figure 35: Additional components of earnings from main job (%), by gender, EU27 and the UK, 2005–2015

    Figure 36: Employees’ perception of their work–life balance (%), by age, EU27 and the UK, 2015

    Figure 37: Employees’ participation in training (%), by age and training classification, EU27 and the UK, 2015

    Figure 38: Associations between demands and resources and workers’ health and well-being

    Figure 39: Proportion of workers with flexitime schedules and engaged in TICTM (%), EU27 and the UK, 2015

    Figure 40: Workers reporting work–life balance problems (%), by work arrangement and presence or absence of children, EU27 and the UK, 2015

    Figure 41: Multiple-job holders as a proportion of total employment (%), by gender and country, EU27 and the UK, 2018

    Figure 42: Job quality profiles of multiple-job holders’ main jobs, by gender, EU27 and the UK, 2015

    Figure 43: Job quality of selected critical occupations in relation to the workforce average

    Figure 44: Emotional demands on ISWs and extent of those demands (%), EU27 and the UK, 2015

  • Videos

    Members of Eurofound’s Management Board provide their reactions to and insights into Eurofound’s 2021 flagship report on Working conditions and sustainable work: An analysis using the job quality framework.

    • Impact of the Covid-19 pandemic
      Interview with Juha Antila, Head of Research and Development SAK, Central Organisation of Finnish Trade Unions.

    • Digitalisation
      Interview with Mario van Mierlo, Deputy Director, Social Affairs, The Dutch Confederation of Industry and Employers (VNO-NCW).

    • Making work sustainable
      Interview with Alain Piette, Ergonomist at the Belgian Federal Public Service Employment, Labour and Social Dialogue.

    • Role of different actors in improving job quality
      Interview with Rebekah Smith, Deputy Director for Social Affairs, BusinessEurope.

    • Persisting challenges
      Interview with Nelson Ferreira, Deputy General Inspector ACT, Portugal Labour Conditions Authority.

    • Remote working
      Interview with Esther Lynch, Deputy General Secretary of the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC).

This report presents the results of research conducted largely prior to the outbreak of COVID-19 in Europe in February 2020. For this reason, the results do not fully take account of the outbreak.

Raziskave, ki so bile izvedene pred izstopom Združenega kraljestva iz Evropske unije 31. januarja 2020 in objavljene pozneje, lahko vključujejo podatke o 28 državah članicah EU. Po tem datumu je v raziskavah upoštevanih le 27 držav članic EU (EU-28 brez Združenega kraljestva), razen če ni določeno drugače.

Part of the series

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

Useful? Interesting? Tell us what you think. Hide comments

Dodaj nov komentar