Representativeness of the European social partner organisations: Railways sector – Germany

  • Observatory: EurWORK
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  • Published on: 07 December 2008



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The aim of this representativeness study is to identify the respective national and supranational actors (i.e. trade unions and employer organisations) in the field of industrial relations in the railways sector in Germany. In order to determine their relative importance in the sector’s industrial relations, this study will, in particular, focus on their representational quality as well as on their role in collective bargaining. The study is divided into two parts: the first part deals with railway transport operation, based on research carried out in 2006; the second part focuses on rail infrastructure, based on research completed in 2007.

Part 1 – Railway transport operations

1. Sectoral properties

Table 1: Railway transport operation, 1999 and 2005 (NACE 60.1)
Sectoral properties 1999 2005
Number of companies* n.a. 526
Aggregate employment** 248,000 174,000
Male employment** 202,000 141,000
Female employment** 46,000 32,000
Aggregate employees*** 150,841 118,045
Male employees*** 116,964 92,180
Female employees*** 33,877 25,865
Aggregate sectoral employment as % of total employment in economy** 0.7 0.5
Aggregate sectoral employees as % of total number of employees in economy*** 0.5 0,4

Notes: * Federal Statistical Office (Statistisches Bundesamt, Destatis), Company register (Unternehmensregister). n.a. = No data available from the 1990s. Figures include companies as well as establishments.

** Federal Statistical Office, Destatis, microcensus (German Industry-Classification Scheme WZ 2003); employees plus self-employed persons without temporary agency workers. 1999 and 2005 data are not strictly comparable due to slightly changed definitions of the sector (1999: ‘railways’ (Eisenbahn); 2003: ‘railways traffic’ (Eisenbahnverkehr).

*** Figures from the Federal Employment Agency (Bundesagentur für Arbeit, BA), only employees liable to social security contributions.

NACE = Nomenclature générale des activités économiques dans les Communautés européennes (General industrial classification of economic activities within the European Communities).

2. The sector’s unions and employer associations

This section includes the following unions and employer associations:

  • trade unions that are party to sector-related collective bargaining;
  • trade unions that are a member of the sector-related European Transport Workers’ Federation (ETF);
  • employer associations that are a party to sector-related collective bargaining;
  • employer associations that are a member of the sector-related Community of European Railway and Infrastructure Companies (CER).

2a Data on the unions

The following trade unions are involved in the German railway transport operations sector:

  • Transnet Gewerkschaft GdED: renamed in 2002 from the German Rail Workers’ Union (Gewerkschaft der Eisenbahner Deutschlands, GdED);
  • Union of German Railway Employees(Gewerkschaft der Deutschen Bahnangestellten, GDBA) – now the Transport Trade Union GDBA (Verkehrsgewerkschaft GDBA);
  • German Engine Drivers’ Union (Gewerkschaft Deutscher Lokomotivführer, GDL);
  • United Services Union (Vereinte Dienstleistungsgewerkschaft, ver.di).

The Christian Trade Union of German Rail Workers (Christliche Gewerkschaft deutscher Eisenbahner, CGDE) also operates in the sector. However, since no information was received on whether this trade union concludes collective agreements within the sector, it was excluded from the study.

2a.1 Type of membership (voluntary vs. compulsory)

Voluntary.

2a.2 Formal demarcation of membership domain (e.g. blue-collar workers, private sector workers, railways sector employees, etc)

No formal demarcation lines exist in terms of membership domain. Demarcation lines are self-defined by the respective trade unions. In the case of ver.di and Transnet, which both are members of the Confederation of German Trade Unions (Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund, DGB), demarcation lines were defined to impede competition. Transnet’s main organising domain is the German Federal Railway (Deutsche Bahn, DB) and its subsidiaries, but the trade union domain also extends to other private and public companies. Ver.di’s organising domain, by self-definition, is restricted to private and public companies other than the DB group.

By self-definition, GdL only organises engine drivers and conductors in state-owned and private companies.

2a.3 Number of union members (i.e. the total number of members of the union as a whole)

Numbers include people of pensionable age.

Transnet: Total membership in 2005 reached 259,955 workers (administrative data, A).

No disaggregated data on the railway sector. Membership figures include employees of DB companies in the logistic, telecommunication, shipping and bus transportation sector.

GdL: About 35,000 members in 2005, according to trade union information.

GDBA: About 50,000 members in 2005, according to trade union information.

No disaggregated data on railway sector available. Membership figures include employees of bus transportation companies.

Ver.di: A total of 2,359,392 members in 2005 (A), about 7,500 to 8,000 of whom were in the railway sector, according to trade union information.

2a.4 Female union members as a percentage of total union membership

Transnet: 20.8% of total union membership (including DG companies in other sectors), according to trade union information.

GdL: No data available.

GDBA: 10.8%, according to trade union information.

Ver.di: About 20% in the railway sector, according to trade union information.

2a.5 Density with regard to the union domain (see 2a.2)

Transnet: 50%–60%, according to trade union information.

GdL: 75% of engine drivers and about 25% of railway service workers are organised, according to trade union information.

GDBA: 10.7%, according to trade union information.

Ver.di: About 50% in private and public rail companies other than DB.

2a.6 Density of the union with regard to the sector

It should be noted that no precise data are available on companies that are not members of the employers’ associations. Trade unions did not always clearly distinguish between union density with regard to the union domain and density with regard to the sector.

Transnet: 50%–60%, according to trade union information.

GdL: About 75% among engine drivers and about 25% among conductors, according to trade union information.

GDBA: 10.7%, according to trade union information.

Ver.di: Data not available.

2a.7 Does the union conclude collective agreements?

Transnet, GDBA, GdL and ver.di conclude collective agreements.

Transnet and GDBA form a bargaining alliance.

2a.8 For each association, list their affiliation to higher-level national, European and international interest associations (including cross-sectoral associations)

Transnet: A member of DGB at national level and affiliated to ETF at European level and the International Transport Workers’ Federation (ITF) at international level.

GDBA: A member of the German Federation of Career Public Servants (Deutscher Beamtenbund, DBB) at national level and affiliated to ETF and ITF at international level.

GDL: A member of DBB at national level and affiliated to the European Confederation of Independent Trade Unions (CESI) and the Autonomous Train Drivers’ Unions of Europe (Autonome Lokomotivführer-Gewerkschaften Europas, ALE).

Ver.di: A member of DGB, ETF and ITF.

2b Data on the employer associations

Two employer associations are currently operating in the railway transport operations sector:

  • Employers’ Association of German Railway Companies( Arbeitgeberverband Deutscher Eisenbahner, AGVDE);
  • Employers’ Association of Mobility and Transport Service Providers( Arbeitgeberverband der Mobilitäts- und Verkehrsdienstleister, Agv MoVe).

2b.1 Type of membership (voluntary vs. compulsory)

Voluntary.

2b.2 Formal demarcation of membership domain (e.g. SMEs, small-scale crafts/industry, subsectors of railways, etc)

AGVDE generally represents all railway companies that have not been part of the former public company DB or have not been subsidiaries of the latter.

Agv MoVe represents companies and subsidiaries of DB as well as other railway companies. Enterprises that construct or maintain the infrastructure in the railway sector or that provide services for railway companies are also eligible for membership.

2b.3 Number of member companies

AGVDE: Total of 120 members: 58 of the 120 companies operate in the railways sector and 15 companies are engaged in both railway and bus transportation. According to AGVDE information, 47 companies do not belong to NACE section 60.1.

Agv MoVe: A total of 67 members: 35 of the 67 companies operate in transportation (railways and/or bus), 22 enterprises are service companies and 10 companies are engaged in constructing or maintaining the infrastructure of the railway sector.

2b.4 Number of employees working in member companies

AGVDE: Between 12,000 and 13,000 persons are employed in various member companies, according to trade union information.

Agv MoVe: No precise data are available on the number of employees working in member companies that are exclusively operating in NACE section 60.1.

2b.5 Density of the association in terms of companies with regard to their domain (see 2b.2)

AGVDE: No data available.

Agv MoVe: No data available.

2b.6 Density of the association in terms of companies with regard to the sector

AGVDE: No data available.

Agv MoVe: Density of 80%, according to trade union information.

2b.7 Density in terms of employees represented with regard to their domain (see 2b.2)

AGVDE: No data available.

Agv MoVe: Density in terms of employees ranges from 85% to 90%, according to trade union information.

2b.8 Density in terms of employees represented with regard to the sector

AGVDE: No data available.

Agv MoVe: No data available.

2b.9 Does the employer association conclude collective agreements?

Both associations conclude collective agreements.

2b.10 For each association, list their affiliation to higher-level national, European and international interest associations (including the cross-sectoral associations)

Both AGVDE and Agv MoVe are members of the Confederation of the German Employers’ Associations (Bundesvereinigung der Deutschen Arbeitgeberverbände, BDA), which is a member of BusinessEurope (formerly UNICE).

3. Inter-associational relationships

3.1 Unions whose domains overlap

The organising domains of all trade unions overlap at private and public railway companies other than companies of DB.

At DB and its subsidiaries, the organising domains of Transnet, GdL, GDBA and CGDE overlap.

3.2 Do rivalries and competition exist among the unions, concerning the right to conclude collective agreements and to be consulted in public policy formulation and implementation?

No rivalries exist on the formal right to conclude collective agreements among the unions nor between the trade unions concerning the right to be consulted.

3.3 If yes, are certain unions excluded from these rights?

No unions are formally excluded.

3.4 Same question for employer associations as 3.1.

The domains of AGVDE and Agv MoVe overlap at private and public railway companies other than companies of DB.

3.5 Same question for employer associations as 3.2.

No.

3.6 Same question for employer associations as 3.3.

No.

4. The system of collective bargaining

Collective agreements are defined according to national labour law regardless of whether they are negotiated under a peace obligation.

4.1 Sector’s rate of collective bargaining coverage

No precise data are available. Due to the fact that the majority of the sector’s employees either work for DB or its subsidiaries or for railway companies that are members of the two employer associations, trade union sources assume the coverage rate to be high.

Data on companies that are not members of the employer associations were not available. Trade union information on these companies is scarce.

4.2 Relative importance of multi-employer agreements and of single-employer agreements as a percentage of the total number of employees covered

No precise data are available. However, according to trade union sources, most of the sector’s employees are covered by multi-employer collective agreements.

Two multi-employer collective wage agreements exist, which together cover a majority of the employees throughout Germany:

  • a collective agreement on railways (Tarifvertrag für die Bediensteten der nichtbundeseigenen Eisenbahnen und Kraftverkehrsunternehmen – Eisenbahntarifvertrag, ETV), which covers private and public companies other than companies of the DB group, was first concluded by AGVDE and various other trade unions in 1966 and has been renewed since then;
  • the collective wage agreement for employees of various companies and subsidiaries of the DB group (Entgelttarifvertrag für die Arbeitnehmer verschiedener Unternehmen des DB Konzerns, KonzernETV) between Transnet, GDBA and Agv MoVe is considered to be a multi-employer collective agreement by the bargaining parties. It covers privatised companies and subsidiaries of the DB group, including railway companies as well as companies in the logistic, bus transportation and shipping sector.

4.2.1 Is there a practice of extending multi-employer agreements to employers who are not affiliated to the signatory employer associations?

No such practice exists.

4.2.2 If there is a practice of extending collective agreements, is this practice pervasive or rather limited and exceptional?

Not applicable.

4.3 Sector-related multi-employer wage agreements valid in 2004 (or most recent data)

Collective agreement for employees of railway and transport companies not owned by the German state (ETV): In 2005, the agreement was renewed by Transnet, ver.di and AGVDE. GDBA did not sign the agreement, but is informally included due to the newly founded bargaining alliance with Transnet. GdL did not sign the agreement due to ongoing disputes that still have to be settled.

Collective wage agreement for employees of various companies and subsidiaries of DB (KonzernETV): Since the collective wage agreement was bargained by Agv MoVe, it is considered to be a multi-employer agreement. The KonzernETV was individually signed by Transnet and ver.di in 2005 and by GdL in 2006.

Table 2: Sectoral collective agreement for employees of German rail transport companies
Bargaining parties Scope of sector-related multi-employer wage agreements
  Sectoral Type of employees Territorial
Transnet Ver.di AGVDE (GDBA has not signed the agreement, but is informally included as a bargaining partner of Transnet) ETV (Eisenbahntarifvertrag) railway collective agreement for employees of railway and transport companies not owned by the state. (Tarifvertrag für die Bediensteten der nichtbundeseigenen Eisenbahnen und von Kraftverkehrsbetrieben) Blue-collar and white-collar employees. Entire country.
Transnet GDBA GdL Agv MoVe DB Group (Entgelttarifvertrag, Konzern ETV) collective wage agreement Blue-collar and white-collar employees. Entire country.

5. Formulation and implementation of sector-specific public policies

5.1 Are the sector’s employer associations and unions usually consulted by the authorities in sector-specific matters? If yes, which associations?

Yes. Transnet, GDBA, GdL and ver.di, as well as AGVDE and Agv MoVe, are usually consulted by the Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Affairs, the Commission on Transport, Building and Urban Affairs of the German parliament (Bundestag) as well as by the single federal states’ ministries of transport and traffic.

5.2 Do tripartite bodies dealing with sector-specific issues exist?

No tripartite bodies exist.

6. Statutory regulations of representativeness

6.1 In the case of the unions, do statutory regulations exist which establish criteria of representativeness which a union must meet, so as to be entitled to conclude collective agreements?

No.

6.2 In the case of the unions, do statutory regulations exist which establish criteria of representativeness which a union must meet, so as to be entitled to be consulted in matters of public policy and to participate in tripartite bodies?

No.

6.3 Are elections for a certain representational body (e.g. works councils) established as criteria for union representativeness?

No.

6.4 Same question for employer associations as 6.1.

No.

6.5 Same question for employer associations as 6.2.

No.

6.6 Are elections for a certain representational body established as criteria for the representativeness of employer associations?

No.

7. Commentary

A previous study on the representativeness of the railway sector was undertaken by the Institute for Labour Studies (Institut des Sciences du Travail, IST) at the Catholic University of Louvain (Université catholique de Louvain, UCL), on behalf of the European Commission.

No further information was provided by the trade unions or employer associations.

Part 2 – Railway infrastructure

1. Sectoral properties

As the railway infrastructure sector is of high economic importance and is an expanding market, private and public railway infrastructure companies are licensed by Germany’s Federal Railway Authority (Eisenbahn-Bundesamt, EBA). The number of listed companies (currently 163) does not match the number of companies in the sector according to NACE 63.21. Most of the registered railway infrastructure companies conclude single-employer agreements. However, as the ownership of the railway infrastructure held by the federal state was transferred to the DB Group, DB subsidiaries employ the vast majority of the sector’s workers. About 99% of these workers are covered by multi-employer agreements reached between the bargaining alliance of Transnet/GDBA and Agv MoVe.

Table 3: Railway infrastructure, 1994 and 2005 (NACE 63.21)
Sectoral properties 1994 2005
Number of companies* n.a. 851
Aggregate employment n.a. n.a.
Male employment n.a. n.a.
Female employment n.a. n.a.
Aggregate employees** 10,372 9,261
Male employees 8,094 7,215
Female employees 2,278 2,046
Aggregate sectoral employment as % of total employment in economy n.a. n.a.
Aggregate sectoral employees as % of total number of employees in economy 0.038% 0.034%

Notes: * Destatis, Company register (Unternehmensregister), 2006: According to this register, the 2005 figure of 851 comprises: 750 companies/establishments with up to 10 employees liable to social security contributions; 90 companies/establishments with up to 50 employees; 23 companies/establishments with up to 250 employees and eight companies/establishments with more than 250 employees.

It should be noted that the EBA lists 163 private and public railway infrastructure companies (2007). Of these, about 38 companies are publicly owned and do not belong to NACE 63.21.

** Figures from BA. Figures refer to all employees liable to social security contributions working in NACE 63.21. According to the Company register, a total of 39,808 people are employed in NACE 63.21, of whom 34,817 work in companies with more than 250 employees.

The railway infrastructure company Deutsche Bahn Netz (DB Netz) employs about 28,000 and Deutsche Bahn Station and Service employs about 4,550 people (2006 figure), according to the respective company reports.

2. The sector’s unions and employer associations

This section includes the following unions and employer associations:

  • trade unions that are party to sector-related collective bargaining;
  • trade unions that are a member of the sector-related ETF;
  • employer associations that are a party to sector-related collective bargaining;
  • employer associations that are a member of the sector-related European employer federations – CER and the European Rail Infrastructure Managers (EIM).

2a Data on the unions

The following trade unions are involved in the German railway infrastructure sector:

  • Transnet Gewerkschaft GdED;
  • Verkehrsgewerkschaft GDBA;
  • ver.di.

It should be noted that GdL is no longer party to the 2002 settlement of the collective framework agreement covering employees of railway infrastructure subsidiaries of the DB Group. As GdL’s main organising domain comprises engine drivers and conductors, GdL is not included in part of the study.

2a.1 Type of membership (voluntary vs. compulsory)

Voluntary.

2a.2 Formal demarcation of membership domain (e.g. blue-collar workers, private sector workers, railways sector employees, etc)

No formal demarcation lines exist in terms of membership domain. Demarcation lines are self-defined by the respective trade unions. In the case of ver.di and Transnet, which both are members of DGB, demarcation lines were defined to impede competition. Transnet’s main organising domain is DB and its subsidiaries, but the trade union domain also extends to other private and public companies. Ver.di’s organising domain, by self-definition, is restricted to private and public companies other than the DB group. GDBA organises civil servants working in the railway infrastructure sector.

2a.3 Number of union members (i.e. the total number of members of the union as a whole)

Transnet: Total membership in 2006 reached 248,983 workers.

GDBA: Total membership in 2006 reached about 45,000 workers.

Ver.di: Total membership in 2006 reached 2,274,731 workers.

2a.4 Number of union members in the sector

It should be noted that membership numbers are not comparable.

Transnet: About 27,300 members.

GDBA: 7,030 members in those railway infrastructure companies that are registered by EBA.

Ver.di: (Sectoral overlap) about 1,000 members.

2a.5 Female union members as a percentage of total union membership

Transnet: 21.1%

GDBA: 10.8%

Ver.di: 49.8%

2a.6 Density with regard to the union domain (see 2a.2)

Transnet: About 70%

GDBA: No disaggregated data available.

Ver.di: About 50%

2a.7 Density of the union with regard to the sector

Transnet: About 70%

GDBA: No disaggregated data available.

Ver.di: No data available.

2a.8 Does the union conclude collective agreements?

Transnet, GDBA and ver.di conclude collective agreements.

Transnet/GDBA form a bargaining alliance (Tarifgemeinschaft Transnet/GDBA).

2a.9 For each association, list their affiliation to higher-level national, European and international interest associations (including cross-sectoral associations)

Transnet: DGB, ETF and ITF.

GDBA: DBB, ETF and ITF.

Ver.di: DGB, ETF and ITF.

Union density is defined as the ratio of union members to potential union members, as demarcated by the union’s domain and by the sector.

If the domain of a union embraces only part of the sector, then the data on density should refer to this part.

2b Data on the employer associations

Agv MoVe is the only employer association currently operating in the railway infrastructure sector.

2b.1 Type of membership (voluntary vs. compulsory)

Voluntary.

2b.2 Formal demarcation of membership domain (e.g. SMEs, small-scale crafts/industry, subsectors of transport, etc)

Agv MoVe represents companies and subsidiaries of DB as well as some other railway companies. Railway companies as well as companies/enterprises that construct or maintain the infrastructure in the railway sector or that provide services for railway companies are also eligible for membership.

No demarcation lines exist. Company size is irrelevant for membership.

2b.3 Number of member companies (i.e. the total number of members of the association as a whole

Agv MoVe has 67 members, 35 of which operate in transportation (railways and/or bus), 22 service companies and 10 are companies engaged in constructing or maintaining the infrastructure of the railway sector.

2b.4 Number of member companies in the sector

Ten railway infrastructure companies are members of Agv MoVe.

2b.5 Number of employees working in member companies (i.e. the total number of the association as a whole)

No precise data are available on the number of employees working in all member companies of Agv MoVe.

2b.6 Number of employees working in member companies in the sector

No precise data are available. According to Agv MoVe, about 65,000 employees work in member companies related to the railway infrastructure sector.

2b.7 Density of the association in terms of companies with regard to their domain (see 2b.2)

About 90% density.

2b.8 Density of the association in terms of companies with regard to the sector

About 90% density.

2b.9 Density in terms of employees represented with regard to their domain (see 2b.2)

About 80% to 85% density.

2b.10 Density in terms of employees represented with regard to the sector

About 80% to 85% density.

2b.11 Does the employer association conclude collective agreements?

Yes

2b.12 For each association, list their affiliation to higher-level national, European and international interest associations (including the cross-sectoral associations).

Agv MoVe is a member of BDA, which is a member of BusinessEurope.

Employer density in terms of companies is defined as the ratio of member companies to the potential member companies, as demarcated by the employer associations’ domain and by the sector.

Employer density in terms of employees is defined as the ratio of the number of employees working in the member companies to the number of employees working in the potential member companies, as demarcated by the employer associations’ domain and by the sector.

If the domain of an employer association embraces only part of the sector, then the data on density should refer to this part.

3. Inter-associational relationships

3.1 Unions whose domains overlap

The domains of Transnet, GDBA and ver.di overlap.

3.2 Do rivalries and competition exist among the unions, concerning the right to conclude collective agreements and to be consulted in public policy formulation and implementation?

No. Transnet and GDBA form a bargaining alliance.

3.3 If yes, are certain unions excluded from these rights?

No.

3.4 Same question for employer associations as 3.1.

No overlap.

3.5 Same question for employer associations as 3.2.

No.

3.6 Same question for employer associations as 3.3.

No.

4. The system of collective bargaining

Collective agreements are defined according to national labour law regardless of whether they are negotiated under a peace obligation.

4.1 Sector’s rate of collective bargaining coverage

The sector’s rate of collective bargaining coverage is estimated at about 98%, considering the number of employees working at DB subsidiaries.

4.2 Relative importance of multi-employer agreements and of single-employer agreements as a percentage of the total number of employees covered

As most employees work in DB companies represented by Agv MoVe, it is estimated that most employees are covered by multi-employer agreements.

4.2.1 Is there a practice of extending multi-employer agreements to employers who are not affiliated to the signatory employer associations?

No.

4.2.2 If there is a practice of extending collective agreements, is this practice pervasive or rather limited and exceptional?

Not applicable.

4.3 Sector-related multi-employer wage agreements valid in 2005 (or most recent data)

It should be noted that the Railway Collective Agreement (Eisenbahntarifvertrag, ETV) for employees of railway and transport companies not owned by the German state concluded by ver.di and AGVDE is not included in this part of the study. According to ver.di, the ETV in practice covers employees working in railway infrastructure divisions of railway companies that are members of AGVDE. According to AGVDE, the association does not represent railway infrastructure companies. AGVDE was thus excluded from this part of the study.

Table 4: Sector-related multi employer wage agreements
Bargaining parties Scope of sector-related multi-employer wage agreements
  Sectoral Type of employees Territorial
Transnet GDBA Agv MoVe; July 2007 KonzernETV (Entgelttarifvertrag für die Arbeitnehmer verschiedener Unternehmen des DB Konzerns) Collective wage agreement of the DB Group including the railway infrastructure companies DB Netz and DB Station and Service, excluding several DB subsidiaries operating in the field of construction or services Blue-collar and white- collar employees Entire country

5. Formulation and implementation of sector-specific public policies

5.1 Are the sector’s employer associations and unions usually consulted by the authorities in sector-specific matters? If yes, which associations?

According to Agv MoVe, the employer association is usually not consulted.

The trade unions Transnet, GDBA and ver.di are usually consulted by the Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Affairs.

5.2 Do tripartite bodies dealing with sector-specific issues exist?

No tripartite bodies exist. However, DB is a member of Agv MoVe and is involved in the social dialogue at EU level.

6. Statutory regulations of representativeness

6.1 In the case of the unions, do statutory regulations exist which establish criteria of representativeness which a union must meet, so as to be entitled to conclude collective agreements?

No.

6.2 In the case of the unions, do statutory regulations exist which establish criteria of representativeness which a union must meet, so as to be entitled to be consulted in matters of public policy and to participate in tripartite bodies?

No.

6.3 Are elections for a certain representational body (e.g. works councils) established as criteria for union representativeness?

No.

6.4 Same question for employer associations as 6.1.

No.

6.5 Same question for employer associations as 6.2.

No.

6.6 Are elections for a certain representational body established as criteria for the representativeness of employer associations?

No.

7. Commentary

As NACE code 63.21 does not match the boundaries of the railway infrastructure sector, the results of this study have to be considered with caution.

Birgit Beese, Institute of Social and Economic Research, and Oliver Stettes, Cologne Institute for Economic Research

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