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  • Article
    27 Maj 1997

    Tourism is one of Austria's major industries, contributing an estimated 10%
    of the GDP. There are about 70,000 businesses with a turnover that has
    recently stabilised at about ATS 180,000 million. Employment is about 142,000
    on annual average, or roughly 5% of the national total. In the peak season,
    in mid-summer, the industry employs about 160,000 people. Neither employment
    figure includes the employers themselves, who are an important part of the
    workforce in the industry. The median gross income for a complete full-time
    working month of 30 days in 1995 was ATS 15,980, as against ATS 22,600 for
    all industries together. The low incomes correlate with a large share of
    female employees. In 1995, the number of people employed for at least one day
    stood at 221,127. Of these, 134,614 were women, of whom 119,865 were employed
    on a waged basis and only 14,749 on salaries. Such a small share of salaried
    employees, both among men and women is unusual. At the same time, the
    profitability of large parts of the industry is repeatedly cast in doubt by

  • Article
    27 Maj 1997

    The debate on reforming the law to permit trade unions in the PSP - in
    relation specifically to policemen and women - broke out again in Portugal at
    the end of 1996, and has been continuing ever since. The debate, fully
    covered in the media and commented on by the main political parties,
    culminated on 21 April 1997 with a meeting of PSP members, many of whom wore
    their uniforms. The meeting turned into a public demonstration at the
    Ministry of the Interior- the Ministry in charge of that particular police
    force - with harsh words being shouted at the Minister.

  • Article
    27 Maj 1997

    The ECJ's ruling on 11 March 1997 in the case of /Süzen v Zehnacher
    Gebäudereinigung GmbH Krankenhausservice and another/ (Case C-13/95) made a
    potential "U-turn" in the interpretation of the EU Directive on transfers of
    undertakings, that has left a question mark over the way that the employment
    rights of the employees of contractors are decided. The ruling stems from a
    court case in Germany in which a school cleaner, Ayse Süzen, lost her job
    when her employer failed to keep the cleaning contract at the school where
    she worked. Ms Süzen challenged the decision of the new contractor not to
    re-employ the cleaning workers dismissed by their original employer.

  • Article
    27 Maj 1997

    Meeting on 17 April 1997, the Labour and Social Affairs Council of Ministers
    took stock of initiatives by the European Commission and the Council
    Presidency aimed at improving information, consultation and participation
    mechanisms for employees. Padraig Flynn, the commissioner responsible for
    employment, industrial relations and social affairs, highlighted the
    importance of such initiatives in the light of the Renault crisis (EU9703108F
    [1]). He also reported on the current status of the work by the high-level
    expert working group on worker involvement.


  • Article
    27 Maj 1997

    Under the terms of a new bill, announced in April 1997, employees in the
    Netherlands will be entitled to benefits if they interrupt their careers for
    care or study leave, on condition that the employer hires an unemployed
    person for the same period

  • Article
    27 Maj 1997

    The Vlaams Blok, a xenophobic and extreme right-wing Flemish nationalist
    party, is currently seeking legitimacy as the defender of "ordinary people".
    With its populist stand against immigrants and French-speakers, the party has
    won a large number of votes in some towns in Flanders, particularly amongst
    those sections of the population most badly hit by unemployment and worsening
    living conditions.

  • Article
    27 Maj 1997

    On 25 April 1997, the Saxon metalworking employers' association
    (Arbeitgeberverband der Sächsischen Metall- und Elektroindustrie, VSME) and
    the metalworkers' trade union, IG Metall, signed new collective agreements
    for the 87,000 employees in the Saxon metal industry. The agreements include
    a new agreement on wages and salaries, new framework agreements for white-
    and blue-collar workers, and a new agreement to secure employment
    (Beschäftigungssicherungstarifvertrag). The agreements mainly follow the
    pattern of the agreements which have already been agreed in other regions of
    eastern Germany, and conclude the 1997 collective bargaining round in east
    German metalworking.

  • Article
    27 Maj 1997

    In what legal experts in Ireland have highlighted as a landmark case on the
    issue of indirect sex discrimination, Ireland's Supreme Court has asserted
    the primacy of EU law over domestic law. Mary Honan, a legal expert with the
    Employment Equality Agency said that the decision also established the
    correct legal framework for establishing unlawful indirect discrimination.

  • Article
    27 Maj 1997

    An agreement for Italy's first regional occupational pensions fund was signed
    in March 1997 by the Veneto local organisations of Confindustria, the main
    employers' organisation, and of the CISL trade union confederation. The
    initiative has met with hostility from CGIL and uncertainty from UIL, the
    other two main union confederations.

  • Article
    27 Maj 1997

    According to the Austrian Chamber of the Economy (Wirtschaftskammer
    Österreich, WKÖ) there were 162,339 salaried employees in industrial
    establishments in 1995. This was nearly 35% of total employment in industry.
    (There were another 8,605 in industrial enterprises in the construction
    industry where they accounted for 23% of employment). The pay scales applying
    to these employees have been changed from 1 May 1997, affecting 84% of the
    total in industry. The changes come in the form of a collective agreement
    concluded between the Federal Section Industry (Bundessektion Industrie) of
    the WKÖ and the Industry and Crafts Section (Sektion Industrie und Gewerbe)
    of the Union of Salaried Employees (Gewerkschaft der Privatangestellten,
    GPA). The negotiations started in May 1995 and were concluded on 28 October


  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This publication series include the ERM reports, as well as blogs, articles and working papers on restructuring-related events in the EU27 and Norway.

  • European Working Conditions Telephone Survey 2021

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Developments in working life, industrial relations and working conditions in the EU

    This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

Forthcoming publications