Industrial relations

Minimalne plače v letu 2020: letni pregled

Report
Posodobljeno
15 Julij 2020
Objavljeno
4 Junij 2020
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Executive summary
Prenesi

Ključne ugotovitve

  • V letu 2019 je veliko držav razpravljalo o nadaljnjem znatnem povečanju minimalnih plač po letu 2020, delno glede na relativni cilj, delno v absolutnem smislu.
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  • V letu 2019 je veliko držav razpravljalo o nadaljnjem znatnem povečanju minimalnih plač po letu 2020, delno glede na relativni cilj, delno v absolutnem smislu.
  • Zakonsko določene minimalne plače so postale pravičnejše v primerjavi z drugimi delavskimi plačami od začetka tisočletja (če se zakonsko določene minimalne plače primerjajo z mediano plač vseh delavcev).
  • Kljub temu naraščanju minimalne plače v večini držav ostajajo te pod 60 % ali celo pod 50 % mediane plač. To velja zlasti v državah članicah srednje in vzhodne Evrope, ki so na začetku novega tisočletja izhajale iz zelo nizkih relativnih stopenj in v katerih je višina minimalne plače v zakonodaji še vedno določena na ravni približno 50 % mediane ali manj.
  • Na splošno 7 od 10 delavcev z minimalno plačo poroča, da vsaj deloma težko shajajo s plačo skozi mesec, v primerjavi z manj kot 5 od 10 delavcev, ki prejemajo plačo, višjo od minimalne, vendar pa se te številke močno razlikujejo med posameznimi državami. Na primer skozi mesec se težko ali zelo težko prebija manj kot 10 % delavcev z minimalno plačo na Danskem, Finskem, v Nemčiji in na Švedskem; na drugi strani se te številke gibljejo med 50 % in 60 % v Bolgariji, na Hrvaškem in Cipru ter 80 % v Grčiji.
  • Vlade v vsej Evropi se odzivajo z različnimi ukrepi za stabilizacijo dohodkov tistih, ki jih je prizadela kriza zaradi nove koronavirusne bolezni. Minimalne plače imajo lahko pomembno vlogo v kombinaciji politik za stabilizacijo dohodkov in s tem zahtevajo ukrepanje za boj proti nezadržnemu slabšanju razmer v recesijo ali depresijo.
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Povzetek

To poročilo, ki je del sklopa letnih pregledov o minimalnih plačah, povzema ključne dogodke v letu 2019 in na začetku leta 2020 v zvezi s pobudo EU o poštenih plačah ter v ta okvir postavlja nacionalne razprave o določitvi stopenj za leto 2020 in naslednja leta. V njem je opisano, kako so bile doRead more

To poročilo, ki je del sklopa letnih pregledov o minimalnih plačah, povzema ključne dogodke v letu 2019 in na začetku leta 2020 v zvezi s pobudo EU o poštenih plačah ter v ta okvir postavlja nacionalne razprave o določitvi stopenj za leto 2020 in naslednja leta. V njem je opisano, kako so bile določene minimalne plače in kakšna je vloga socialnih partnerjev. Poročilo obravnava razvoj dogodkov na področju zakonsko določenih minimalnih plač in predstavlja podatke o minimalnih urnih postavkah v kolektivnih pogodbah, ki se nanašajo na deset slabo plačanih delovnih mest v državah brez zakonsko določene minimalne plače. Vsebuje tudi poglavje o regionalni razsežnosti minimalnih plač in predstavlja najnovejše raziskave o učinkih sprememb minimalne plače na osebne dohodke, zaposlovanje, revščino zaposlenih, cene in dobičke.

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  • Poročilo

    Last updated date: 
    23 Jun 2020
    Število strani: 
    86
    Referenčna št.: 
    EF20005
    ISBN: 
    978-92-897-2068-7
    Kataloška št.: 
    TJ-AS-20-001-EN-N
    DOI: 
    10.2806/999852
    Catalogue info

    Minimalne plače v letu 2020: letni pregled

    This report, as part of an annual series on minimum wages, summarises the key developments during 2019 and early 2020 around the EU initiative on fair wages and puts the national debates on setting the rates for 2020 and beyond in this context. The report features how minimum wages were set and the role of social partners. It discusses developments in statutory minimum wages and presents data on minimum wage rates in collective agreements related to 10 low-paid jobs for countries without statutory minimum wages.

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    Citiranje te publikacije: 

    Eurofound (2020), Minimum wages in 2020: Annual review, Minimum wages in the EU series, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.

  • Executive summary

    Number of pages: 
    6
    Referenčna št.: 
    EF20005EN1
    Catalogue info

    Minimum wages in 2020: Annual review

    Avtor(-ji): 
    Eurofound

    During the year 2019 many countries were debating a further substantial increase to minimum wages beyond 2020, partially in relation to a relative target, partially in absolute terms. Some governments — such as Poland, Slovakia and Spain — have announced or are considering plans to elevate the statutory minimum wages to 60% of median or average wages. The United Kingdom reached this aim and intends to move beyond. Statutory minimum wages have become fairer as compared to other workers’ wages since the beginning of the millennium (when comparing statutory minimum wages to the median wages of all workers). In most countries, the level of the minimum wage as a proportion of the median wage (the ‘Kaitz index’) has grown between 2000 and 2018.

    Na voljo za prenos v 1 jeziku

    Prenesi
  • Working papers

    Related working papers

  • Data

    Data

    Find data on statutory minimum wages in the EU.

    List of tables

    • Table 1: Social partners’ first reactions to the announced initiative on fair wages
    • Table 2: Overview of main arguments and proposals concerning an EU minimum wage initiative from social partners
    • Table 3: Gross minimum wages, selected EU Member States and the UK, 2019 and 2020
    • Table 4: Sub-minimum rates for selected EU Member States and the UK as at 1 January 2020
    • Table 5: Further statutory minimum wage rates for private sector workers in selected EU Member States
    • Table 6: Number of collective agreements covering low-paying job categories for countries without statutory minimum wages
    • Table 7: Minimum wages in collective agreements, applicable in 2019 for selected low-paid jobs
    • Table 8: Collective agreement coverage in Finland
    • Table 9: Overview of debates during 2019 on aspects of the minimum wage setting processes
    • Table 10: Demands for and agreements on targets for future minimum wages to address adequacy in selected EU Member States and the UK
    • Table 11: Regional statutory minimum wage rates
    • Table 12: Latest minimum wage research in EU Member States and the UK
    • Table 13: Overview of recent empirical research in the EU, Norway and the UK on employment impacts of minimum wage increases, 2019
    • Table 14: Policies influencing in-work poverty
    • Table A1: Network of Eurofound Correspondents – Members participating in the research

    List of figures

    • Figure 1: Conceptualising adequate minimum wages
    • Figure 2: Estimated share of employees earning 90% to 110% of the minimum wage, EU Member States, 2017
    • Figure 3: Proportions of female and male employees, EU level, 2017
    • Figure 4: Proportion of minimum wage workers per sector, EU level, 2017
    • Figure 5: Proportion of minimum wage workers per occupation (top 10), EU level, 2017
    • Figure 6: Hourly minimum wages, selected EU Member States, 2020
    • Figure 7: Minimum wage developments in real terms, 15 euro area countries, 2015 price levels
    • Figure 8: Minimum wage developments in real terms, non-euro area, 2015 price levels
    • Figure 9: Impact of purchasing power on the minimum wage value for selected EU Member States and the UK, as at 1 January 2020
    • Figure 10: Relative distance between purchasing power of lowest and median minimum wage EU Member States and the UK and highest minimum wage EU Member States and the UK, 2010–2020
    • Figure 11: Process for determining minimum wage rates for 2020
    • Figure 12: Number of minimum wage rate updates, EU Member States with statutory minimum wages and the UK, since 2010
    • Figure 13: Longer-term trend of development of statutory minimum wages relative to median wages of full-time employed workers, selected countries within the EU and the UK, 2000–2018
    • Figure 14: Proportion of minimum wage workers who find it difficult to make ends meet, EU average
    • Figure 15: Proportion of minimum wage workers who find it difficult to make ends meet
    • Figure 16: Making ends meet and minimum wages in relative and absolute terms
    • Figure 17: Monthly minimum wage as a proportion of the mean value of average monthly earnings by NUTS1 region, reference year 2016
    • Figure 18: Regional variation of relative monthly minimum wages, by NUTS1 region, 2016
    • Figure 19: Examples of countries with higher interregional differences in the proportion of minimum wage workers

     

Raziskave, ki so bile izvedene pred izstopom Združenega kraljestva iz Evropske unije 31. januarja 2020 in objavljene pozneje, lahko vključujejo podatke o 28 državah članicah EU. Po tem datumu je v raziskavah upoštevanih le 27 držav članic EU (EU-28 brez Združenega kraljestva), razen če ni določeno drugače.

To poročilo predstavlja rezultate raziskav, izvedenih pred izbruhom koronavirusne bolezni v Evropi februarja 2020, zato v rezultatih niso upoštevane posledice tega izbruha.

Part of the series

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

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