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  • Article
    20 Marec 2002

    The third stage of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), during which the value
    of the currencies of the 12 participating countries was fixed to the euro,
    continued during 2001. Euro notes and coins came into circulation on 1
    January 2002 and all national currencies in the 'euro-zone' were withdrawn by
    28 February 2002 . The value of the euro remained relatively stable against
    other major currencies during 2001. The average value of one euro in 2001 was
    USD 0.896, JPY 108.7 and GBP 0.609.

  • Article
    20 Marec 2002

    The general election in September and the preceding campaign dominated
    politics in Norway during 2001. The ruling Labour Party, (Det norske
    Arbeiderpartiet, DnA) witnessed its most disastrous parliamentary election
    result since 1900 and, although the largest single party in parliament after
    the election, chose to resign from office. A new centre-right minority
    coalition government entered office in October 2001, comprising the
    Conservative Party (Høyre), the Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig
    Folkeparti, KRF), and the Liberal Party (Venstre) (NO0110108F [1]). The new
    Prime Minister, Kjell Magne Bondevik of KRF, had also been Prime Minister in
    the centre coalition government which resigned in March 2000.


  • Article
    20 Marec 2002

    The present government is a coalition of the conservative People's Party
    (Österreichische Volkspartei, ÖVP) and populist Freedom Party
    (Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs, FPÖ), which came to office in February
    2000 (AT0002212F [1]). A local election in Austria's capital, Vienna, held on
    25 March 2001, resulted in the most significant losses for the FPÖ since it
    came to government. Electoral support for the FPÖ fell by nearly 8
    percentage points to 20.1%, a drop of more than one third. The Social
    Democratic Party (Sozialdemokratische Partei Österreichs, SPÖ) increased
    its vote by 7.7 points and was once again able to govern the capital alone:
    it lost its absolute majority in Vienna 10 years previously and had since
    formed coalition governments with the ÖVP. The outcome of the election was
    deemed crucial for the ÖVP/FPÖ coalition government at the federal level,
    as it was seen as expressing a growing opposition to the government's ongoing
    cutbacks in social security and welfare provision. Moreover, the government's
    'austerity programme' and corresponding political initiatives provoked fierce
    criticism from the SPÖ and the Greens (Die Grünen, GRÜNE) as well as
    organised labour. Conflicts emerged, especially with the Austrian Trade Union
    Federation (Österreichischer Gewerkschaftsbund, ÖGB) (see below under
    'Industrial action').


  • Article
    20 Marec 2002

    The main political event during 2001 was the general election, held on 13
    May. The centre-right coalition, the House of Freedom (Casa delle Libertà)
    - made up of Forza Italia, the National Alliance (Alleanza Nazionale), the
    Northern League (Lega Nord), the Christian Democratic Centre (Centro
    Cristiano Democratico, CCD) and the United Christian Democrats (Cristiani
    Democratici Uniti, CDU) - won a large parliamentary majority. It obtained 366
    seats out of 630 in the lower house of parliament, the Chamber of Deputies,
    and 177 out of 315 in the upper house, the Senate. It thus formed a new
    government in June 2001, replacing the former centre-left administration.
    Silvio Berlusconi, the leader of Forza Italia, became Prime Minister.

  • Article
    20 Marec 2002

    The Labour government elected in May 1997 was re-elected for a second
    five-year term at the general election held in June 2001. The Labour Party's
    majority over all other parties in the lower house of parliament, the House
    of Commons, fell slightly but remained substantial at 167.

  • Article
    19 Marec 2002

    The European Commission adopted on 13 February 2002 an action plan [1] aimed
    at removing obstacles to the mobility of EU workers, both between jobs and
    between Member States, by 2005. Based on the recommendations [2] of the
    high-level task force on skills and mobility, which were issued in December
    2001 (EU0201234N [3]), the Commission's action plan focuses on three main


  • Article
    19 Marec 2002

    The European Council met under the Spanish Presidency in Barcelona on 15–16
    March 2002 for its annual spring summit on the economic, social and
    environmental situation in the European Union. Previous European Councils of
    this type had been held in Lisbon in March 2000 (EU0004241F [1]) and
    Stockholm in March 2001 (EU0104208F [2]).


  • Article
    19 Marec 2002

    On 24 January 2002, the School Teachers' Review Body (STRB) recommended an
    increase of 3.5% on pay scales and allowances for 495,000 teachers in England
    and Wales, as from April 2002. It also recommended that the main pay scale
    should be reduced from nine to six points in September 2002, enabling
    newly-qualified entrants to apply to pass the 'performance threshold'
    (UK0011100F [1]) and move onto the upper pay scale after five years.


  • Article
    18 Marec 2002

    In early February 2002 the Irish Congress of Trade Unions (ICTU) expelled the
    UK-based union, the Amalgamated Engineering and Electrical Union (AEEU). AEEU
    was expelled for not complying with an ICTU directive not to recruit
    electricians in the Republic of Ireland and refusing to 'hand back' 39
    electricians employed at the Cadburys food company who were 'poached' from
    the Technical Engineering and Electrical Union (TEEU) in 1998.

  • Article
    18 Marec 2002

    On 5 March 2002, a proposal for new legislation on the protection of
    'personal integrity in working life' (Personlig integritet i arbetslivet,
    /SOU 2002:18/) was submitted to the government by the commissioner it had
    appointed to look into the issue, Reidunn Laurén (a former president of the
    Administrative Court of Appeal). The commissioner was asked in September 1999
    to examine the risks to 'personal integrity' and privacy raised by modern
    working life, with a view to possibly proposing increased protection for
    employees and job applicants related to new technology, medical examinations
    and drug testing (SE9911105N [1]).



  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2020. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in two rounds – in April and in July 2020. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

  • European Quality of Life Surveys

    The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.

Forthcoming publications