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  • Article
    27 Marec 1997

    In its response to the Commission's September 1996 Communication on the
    development of the social dialogue (see Record EU9702102F [1]), UNICE (the
    Union of Industrial and Employers' Confederations of Europe) welcomes the
    opportunity for debate and calls for a reinforcement of consultation with the
    social partners. However, it argues that the treatment of fundamentally
    different processes in one Communication adds a source of confusion to the
    debate. These varied processes include: the consultation and negotiation
    within the meaning of Article 118B of the EC Treaty and Article 3.1 of the
    Agreement on social policy; Advisory Committees; the Standing Committee on
    Employment; the joint sectoral committees and informal working groups;
    tripartite bodies; joint operational initiatives; European Works Councils,
    and the social dialogue in trans-boundary region. UNICE feels that the
    Communication should have:


  • Article
    27 Marec 1997

    Portugal's major Lisnave shipyards are being privatised. New industrial
    readjustment and work organisation strategies are reforming human resource
    management and training standards. However, in a company that has strong
    trade union traditions, discussions with employee representatives on
    restructuring have been conducted in a relatively formal and
    institutionalised way, with little participative input from the employees
    concerned themselves.

  • Article
    27 Marec 1997

    The announcement by the French auto manufacturer, Renault, of the closure of
    its plant with a workforce of 3,100 in Vilvorde in the Flanders region of
    Belgium, has caused a wave of indignation throughout Europe. The closure is
    part of a European restructuring project which also includes the axing of
    2,800 jobs in France. The response by the unions, of an unusually rapid and
    massive nature, took the form of strikes in all the group's European plants,
    and a series of joint demonstrations.

  • Article
    27 Marec 1997

    The UK has been the main recipient of Toyota's European investment so far, at
    its plant in Derby. If the UK were to lose the new investment to France, it
    would be a huge blow to the Government which recently had to "rebuild some
    fences" after the company announced in February 1997 that it might switch its
    investment elsewhere in Europe if the UK did not join the single European

  • Article
    27 Marec 1997

    All industrial relations activities in Spain have been at a standstill in
    early 1997, pending the conclusion of negotiations between trade unions and
    employers' organisations on labour market reform. However, initial agreements
    have been reached on types of employment contract and on dismissal

  • Article
    27 Marec 1997

    The issue of the use of national and European subsidies to support employment
    in a particular country, region or sector, has come under the spotlight in
    recent weeks in the context of the controversy which has arisen from
    Renault's announcement of the closure of its factory at Vilvoorde in Belgium
    (see Record EU9703108F [1]). Renault's request for subsidies to expand its
    operations in Spain was blocked by European competition policy commissioner,
    Karel Van Miert, in order to investigate whether EU funding was being used to
    transfer employment to a region offering lower wage and social costs.


  • Article
    27 Marec 1997

    Wage bargaining in the private sector commenced on 10 March 1997 with
    negotiations between the Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions (LO) and
    theConfederation of Norwegian Business and Industry (NHO). So far the
    question of voluntary early retirement has been the most difficult issue and,
    after around one week, LO broke off the negotiations. Mediation was due to
    commence the first week after the Easter holidays.

  • Article
    27 Marec 1997

    The Portuguese Government is planning to extend its "base-line" minimum
    income system to the whole country, and there are calls for greater
    involvement by the social partners in its operation.

  • Article
    27 Marec 1997

    On 20 February 1997, Parliament adopted a law establishing retirement savings
    funds. This legislation has a dual objective. Firstly, to provide private
    sector employees with a new retirement cover financed by capitalisation, and
    secondly, to strengthen the Paris financial market and balance the growing
    power of foreign institutional investors.


  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications