EMCC European Monitoring Centre on Change

Sweden: Young people and temporary employment in Europe

  • Observatory: EMCC
  • Topic:
  • Published on: 08 December 2013



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According to Statistic Sweden, temporary employment as a share of employees aged 15-24 amounted to 51.9 % in 2009 and 56.1 % in 2011. Employment of young people on temporary contracts, and especially on-call work, is particularly common in the hotel and restaurant sector and in the retail sector. The emergence of different types of temporary contracts may be linked to the introduction of a government reform in 2007, which broadened the legal scope for fixed-term employment. Another explanation is the massive increase in students in higher education, which has contributed to more students willing to work on temporary basis.

Introduction

Youth unemployment has been a persistent problem in many parts of Europe for many years. Over the past 3-4 years, however, since the onset of the financial crisis and the economic recession which followed, it has become an even greater and more widespread problem and one which, given the on-going depressed state of the European economies, is likely to remain for some time to come. The latest monthly figures (for September 2012) show the unemployment rate of those aged 15-24 averaging 22.8% in the EU – just over 1 percentage point higher than at the time a year earlier. In Spain, the figure was over 54% and in Greece, 57%, in both cases, much higher than a year earlier. In the worst affected countries, therefore, as in most Member States, there is very little sign of any easing of the youth unemployment problem. There are, however, a few exceptions. In Germany, in particular, youth unemployment has declined since the global recession hit in 2009 and now stands at only 8%, well below the level it was before the recession. In Norway too, the rate is only 8%, though this is slightly above the level in 2007 before the crisis. Germany, apart, there are two other countries in the EU with youth unemployment below 10% according to the latest monthly figures - the Netherlands (9.4%) and Austria (9.9%). As in Norway, in both cases, the rate is above the pre-crisis level.

Moreover, young people who do manage to find jobs often have to settle for a temporary one, defined as one with a fixed-term contract of employment. According to the European Labour Force Survey (LFS), in 2011, just under 43% of employees under 25 were in temporary jobs in the EU and well over half in Germany (56%), France (55%), Portugal, (57%), Sweden (57%), Spain (63%), Poland (66%) and Slovenia (75%). (In Norway, the figure was much lower than in most EU countries, at around 24%.) While around 40% of the young people concerned on average were in temporary jobs because they had a fixed-term training contract and another 9% were on probationary contracts, a substantial proportion (37% on average) were in temporary jobs because they were unable to find permanent ones. In the Czech Republic, Cyprus and Portugal, this figure was over 75% and in Spain and Slovakia, well over 80%.

Among young people making the transition from education or initial vocational training into employment, the proportion who take up temporary rather than permanent jobs is much higher than for the age group as a whole. In 2011, 57% of those aged 15-24 in employment who were in education the previous year were in temporary jobs in the EU and 86-87% in Spain, Portugal and Poland. For those moving from unemployment into employment, the proportion who take up temporary jobs is even higher on average in the EU (61%) as well as in Spain (90%).

The fact that a relatively large proportion of young people in employment are in temporary jobs may be a reason why they have been hit disproportionately hard by the crisis. In the economic downturn in 2009, many of the people who lost their jobs first were on fixed-term contracts since not renewing these contracts represented the easiest way for employers to reduce their work forces. In 2009, therefore, there was some decline across Europe in the proportion of young people in work employed in temporary jobs (see the Tables attached to the questionnaire). Since then, there has been some tendency for the proportion to increase again, in part perhaps because employers are reluctant to take on people on permanent - or standard – contracts given the uncertainty about future economic prospects.

Given the above, it is understandable that there is growing public interest, and some concern, over the nature of the jobs that young people are taking up. This concern is mirrored at EU-level where a ‘flexicurity’ approach to labour market policy has increasingly been advocated, which, in practice, means that while flexibility is an important objective, it needs to be accompanied by protection of workers’ interests if it is not to lead to a growth of precarious employment in low quality jobs. Accordingly, there is a need to obtain a better understanding of the terms and conditions applying to temporary jobs, the extent to which they are a stepping stone to permanent jobs and a working career in line with a person’s qualifications and capabilities, the access to social protection which comes with them and the measures in place to encourage employers to convert them into more stable jobs. These issues form the focus of the present study.

Definition of temporary jobs

The interest in the study is in all young people employed in temporary jobs of whatever kind, in the sense of all jobs that they are not subject to a standard contract of employment which is normally one of indeterminate length, or at least one for which no specific length is specified. Such temporary jobs can be for a period of training (i.e. traineeships or apprenticeships) or probation, intended to enable employers to check the suitability or aptitude of people for the jobs concerned. They might also be to replace someone on maternity leave or on a training programme or they might relate to a specific project of fixed duration.

All such jobs and others which are of fixed duration should be covered, whether they are part-time or full-time and irrespective of whether they are specifically for young people (such as perhaps in the case of traineeships or apprenticeships) or for people of all ages which young people happen to be doing. In some cases, it should be noted, it is relevant to include, in addition, to temporary employees, the ‘bogus’ self-employed – i.e. those people who have self-employment status but who are contracted to work for a single employer and who are effectively similar to employees who have a fixed-term contract of employment. (The cases in question relate to instances where employers use self-employment contracts as a means of employing young people without bearing the costs, and obligations, of a standard contract of employment.)

Outline of study

The study is divided in three sections. The first is concerned with the main types of job in which young people who are employed under temporary contracts work and the reasons why employers choose to use temporary contracts of employment instead of standard ones when they take on young people, as well as with the link, if any, with labour market conditions (i.e. with the extent to which the crisis has led to an increase in temporary employment). The starting point is the data summarised above, derived from the LFS, which indicate the relative number of young people employed on temporary contracts in the different European countries and the way that this has changed over the recent past (these data, as noted, are set out in the tables attached to the questionnaire). Correspondents are asked to check these data against any national data on temporary employment and to indicate where these show a different picture from the LFS data, perhaps because a different definition is adopted of temporary jobs.

Any description or commentary on national statistics should, however, remain brief, since the main task of the first section, is to review and summarise relevant sources of information on the different kinds of temporary contract under which young people are employed in each of the countries, the circumstances and areas (the types of job and the sectors of activity) in which they tend to be used and the main reasons why employers adopt them.

The second section is concerned with the access to social benefits which temporary jobs provide, distinguishing between the various kinds of benefit, and with the extent to which entitlement to benefit differs for young people employed in temporary jobs from that for those employed under standard contracts of employment. It should be emphasised that the concern is not only with the formal regulations which apply, which in many if not most countries do not make a formal distinction between temporary jobs and others, but also with de facto entitlement which stems from the nature of temporary employment. In particular, young people in temporary jobs may have difficulty in complying with the need to have a continuous period in employment, or a continuous record of paying social contributions, in order to be eligible for unemployment benefit.

The third section is concerned with the measures in place to regulate the use of temporary contracts of employment (such as specifying the number of times they can be renewed), with the attitudes of government and the social partners towards their use and with the incentives which exist to encourage the wider use of standard contracts of employment and the conversion of temporary jobs into permanent ones. A particular point of interest is the extent to which regulations and attitudes as regards temporary jobs have changed over the crisis period as the number of jobs available for young people to take up has diminished and as expanding these has become a policy priority.

A final point to note is that while it is customary to define youth employment (and unemployment) in terms of those aged 15-24, it is also the case that many of those aged 25-29 are also employed in temporary jobs, as indicated in the attached tables. Correspondents are therefore asked to extend the coverage of the study to this age group where relevant. It is recognised that in some countries the statistics available may not relate precisely to the age groups specified here, in which case correspondents should report on the age groups nearest to these.

Questionnaire

1. Importance of temporary employment for young people

1.1. Do the figures shown in the attached tables (on the number of temporary employed as a % of total employees based on Eurostat LFS data) give a reliable indication of the scale of temporary employment among the young in your country and the way that it has changed over recent years? Are there young people employed in temporary jobs who do not show up in the Eurostat figures? Are there national statistics which show a different picture from the Eurostat data? If so, please indicate what they show and give the source of the data.

Yes, the attached tables give a reliable indication of the scale of temporary employment in Sweden and the national statistics show similar figures as the Eurostat data.

Figures for employees age 25-29 are not available (Statistics Sweden uses the age group 25-34), however, Eurostat’s and Statistic Sweden’s series show much the same pattern of change.

1.2. Is there any evidence that other forms of employment are used as a substitute for temporary contracts, such as bogus self-employment where young people are contracted to provide services to a single work provider in a continuous manner so acting de facto as employees? If so, please give the source of the evidence and indicate the scale of the phenomenon in terms of the number of people concerned.

No.

1.3. Please list (and give summary details, i.e. purpose and duration of the contract) the most common contract types or contractual arrangements under which young people are employed on a temporary basis (such as for traineeships, apprenticeships, probationary periods, replacement of workers on leave or projects of a fixed duration). What is the relative importance of each type of contract or arrangement in terms of the number of young people employed under them?

As of 1st of July 2007, the following types of temporary employment under which young people can be employed exist in the Employment Protection Act (LAS):

General fixed-term employment: The employer is free to enter into general fixed-term employments, and there is no requirement for objective reasons. The contracts are concluded for a limited period of time and terminate at the expiry of the agreed term. If an employee has been employed for a general fixed-term employment or as a temporary substitute for a total of two years during the last five years, the employment is transformed into a permanent employment.

Temporary substitute employment: Principally, temporary substitute employment is only permitted if the employment is linked either to an employee who is temporarily absent or to a position which is temporarily free. If an employee has been employed as a substitute for in aggregate more than two years, the employment is transformed into indefinite-term employment.

Seasonal employment: permitted when it is necessitated by the special nature of the work, and most frequently used in specific sectors, such as agriculture and tourism. Seasonal employment is common among youths during the summer months.

Fixed-term contracts for probationary employment: The maximum duration of ‘employment on probation’ is six months by law in Sweden. A probationary employment is converted to indefinite-term employment if it is not terminated prior to the end of the probationary period. The purpose of this contract is to let the employer check the suitability of the employee.

The employment form that has increased the most is, however, one that is not included in LAS, namely “on-call employment”. On-call work is regulated by collective agreements. On-call work is performed only on an as-needed basis, either with no fixed hours or with an agreed working schedule where the agreement between employer and employee states a certain amount of hours a week. On-call work has increased extensively in Sweden during the last decades. In the beginning of the 1990s, on-call work amounted to around 5-10 % of all temporary employments in the age group 15-74. This number increased to over 20 % in 2009 (Statistics Sweden, 2010). According to the 2004 LFS ad hoc module on “Work organisation and working time arrangements”, in Sweden, 51% of persons reporting to work only when called were aged 15-24 (European Union labour force survey (LFS) 2004).

Employment of young people on temporary contracts, and especially on-call work, is particularly common in the hotel and restaurant sector (SE0812019Q) and in the retail sector (Handels, 2009). The Commercial Employees' Union (Handels) reports 65.4 % of all temporary employed in the retail sector in 2008 was between 16-24 years of age. The most common form of employment was on-call work (66.7 %), followed by probationary employment (12.5 %).

Traineeships and apprenticeships are not common contractual arrangements under which young people are employed on a temporary basis in Sweden. Apprenticeships and traineeships mainly exist as a activities in active labour market policy programs and in the form of “upper secondary apprenticeship education”.

1.4. Please indicate the main reasons for the emergence and development of the different types of temporary contract which you have listed in response to question 1.3. To what extent are they linked to particular conditions in the labour market or employment protection legislation/regulation in your country? What is the main attraction of such contracts to employers? What effect has the crisis had on the use of such contracts?

The emergence of different types of temporary contracts may be linked to the introduction of a governmental reform in 2007, which broadened the legal scope for fixed-term employment and made it easier to hire on temporary basis (Rönnmar, 2010). The reform meant that that a new form of fixed-term employment, ‘general fixed-term contract’, was introduced. The biggest change in the 2007 reform is, however that the employer does not need to provide objective reasons as to why the contract needs to be fixed-term rather than of an indefinite duration. The reform was not particularly targeting young people but likely had an impact on the employment of the young, since temporary work is widespread in that age group.

Another reason for the emergence and development of temporary contracts among youths is the massive increase in students in higher education during the last decades. The number of full-time students increased from around 260,000 in 2000 to 321,000 in 2010 (Statistics Sweden, 2011). According to Nordström Skanz (2009) many students are willing to work on temporary basis while studying, which likely can explain the increase in the emergence of temporary contracts among youths.

An additional contributing factor may be the Employment Protection Act (LAS), which layoff priorities states that employers have to lay off the most recently hired employee first. This is unfavorable for new entrants on the labour market, often consisting of young people. Rigidity in employment protection risk increasing employers’ will to employ students temporarily, instead of using permanent employment contracts (Nordström Skans, 2009).

The main attraction of temporary contracts to employers is that they have the possibility to align the workforce to their current needs. The redundancy cost for temporary jobs is also lower compared to permanent employment due to the rigidity of employment protection laws.

According to Harbo Hansen (2011) in the early stages of the recession in 2008, companies mainly dismissed workers on temporary contracts, but successively dismissals of workers on permanent employment contracts also picked up. The young workers, as well as immigrants and low skilled were most severely affected by the dismissals, partly due to their reliance on temporary contracts.

The Confederation of Swedish Enterprise also notes that employment on fixed-term contracts decreases rather sharply at the start of a recession. At the same time, fixed-term contracts seem to increase rapidly when the economic situation improves ( Svenskt Näringsliv, 2011).

1.5. To what extent are temporary contracts a ‘stepping stone’ to ‘permanent’ jobs (or those with standard contracts of employment of undefined duration)? Are apprentices and trainees typically taken on by the companies or other organisations concerned on standard permanent contracts once they complete their training? Has the situation changed over the crisis period? Please summarise any relevant studies which have been carried out in your country or other evidence at the national level which exists and give the reference to them.

Statistics Sweden has studied temporary employees aged 16-64. The statistics come from the LFS and covers the third quarter of 2005 to the third quarter of 2010. The result suggests that transition from temporary employment to permanent employment is most reoccurring among men. Between the first and second quarter of 2008, 12.8 % of all temporary employees were transferred to permanent employment. Among the temporary employees who desired permanent employment, which is likely to have a stronger connection to the labor market, the proportion that was transferred to permanent employment was higher. For men, the proportion was 20.3 % compared to 13.4 %for women. Figures for age group 15-24 is not available. The result suggests, however, that only 50 % among temporary employed in the age group 15-24 desired a permanent employment. This can likely be explained by the fact that young people are working and studying at the same time or performing seasonal work, such as summer jobs (Statistics Sweden, 2010).

The possibility of permanent employment was also affected by the labor market situation. Before the financial crisis in 2008, the proportion that was transferred to permanent employment increased, especially among men. With the deterioration in the labor market situation in connection with the financial crisis of 2008, the proportion of men who was transferred to permanent employment decreased by almost four percentage points.

2. Access to social benefits

2.1. Does entitlement of young people to (contributory) unemployment insurance benefits and (non-contributory) unemployment assistance (i.e. benefits, usually means-tested, which provide a minimum level of income) differ if they are employed on temporary contracts as opposed to permanent ones? If so, please indicate briefly the differences in eligibility conditions and any differences between types of temporary contract (including those working as self-employed for a single employer). Have there been any changes over the period of the crisis?

No, the eligibility rules do not differ. Despite type of employment contract, to be eligible for the basic insurance claimants must have been gainfully employed for at least six months and worked for at least 80 hours a month.

In 2007, the government abolished the possibility for those who have recently finished studies to qualify for unemployment insurance benefits. Before 2007 those who completed studies were entitled to a basic pay level after three months of enrolment at the public employment service.

No changes have been made over the period of the crisis.

2.2. Does entitlement of young people to sickness benefits and maternity benefits differ if they are employed on temporary contracts as opposed to permanent ones? If so, please indicate briefly the differences in eligibility conditions and any differences between types of temporary contract (including those working as self-employed for a single employer). Have there been any changes over the period of the crisis?

Sickness and maternity benefits are related to the so-called ’sickness benefit qualifying income’ and not age or type of employment contract. The sickness benefit qualifying income corresponds to the earned income that the insured person may be expected to have during the coming year. Hence, it does not matter if the person is employed permanent or temporary. If the employment contract is shorter than one month the prerequisite for receiving sickness benefit is that the person has worked for fourteen days in a row. Individuals with low income are always entitled to a basic maternity benefit.

No changes have been made over the period of the crisis.

2.3. Are there any differences in the entitlement of young people to old-age pensions between those employed in temporary jobs as opposed to permanent ones? If so, please indicate what these are. Have conditions of eligibility to pensions changed over the period of the crisis (including through pension reforms introduced as part of a long-term strategy to improve the financial sustainability of the system)?

Entitlement to old-age pensions is related to earnings and not type of employment contract or age.

2.4. Are there any differences in entitlement of young people to health care between those employed in temporary jobs as opposed to permanent ones? If so, please indicate what these are. Have conditions of eligibility to health care changed over the period of the crisis?

No

3. Regulation of temporary contracts and policies to support transitions into permanent contracts

3.1. Please describe briefly the regulations applying to the main types of temporary contract in your country. Do restrictions exist on the maximum duration of the different types of temporary contract for young workers or the number of times they can be renewed? Do these regulations differ by age (i.e. between young people and older workers) and/or by type of temporary contract (as mentioned in question 1.3), by occupation, or by sector of activity? Do special regulations exist for those completing apprenticeships or traineeships? Have the regulations changed over the period of the crisis – i.e. has there been a tendency for them to have been tightened or relaxed?

For all general fixed-term employment and temporary substitute employment the following rule apply: If an employee has been employed for a general fixed-term employment or as a temporary substitute for a total of two years during the last five years, the employment is transformed into a permanent employment. The maximum duration of ‘employment on probation’ is six months by law in Sweden (LAS). Those rules do not differ by age, sector or activity and they have not changed over the period of the crisis.

Permanent employment contracts are considered the rule and fixed-term employment contracts are allowed only when agreed upon when specifically provided for by law or collective agreements. However, Rönnmar (2010), notes that those rules are “semi-compelling” since collective agreements can both narrow and widen the scope for fixed-term employment contracts. As previously mentioned, other forms of temporary employment, such as on-call work, is not a recognised form of employment according to LAS. Regulations concerning this type of contract can, however, exist in the collective agreement used on the specific work place.

No special regulations exist regarding apprenticeships and traineeships since those forms mainly exist in labour market policy programs and as upper secondary apprenticeship education, and not as temporary employment forms.

No regulations applying to temporary contracts have changed over the period of the crisis.

3.2. Do incentives exists in your country to encourage employers to opt for standard rather than temporary contracts of employment, to convert temporary contracts into permanent ones or to make it easier for employees to move from temporary to permanent contracts? If so, please briefly describe the form that these incentives take. Do they apply equally to young people as well as to older workers? Are any incentives in place to encourage employers to take on young people who have completed an apprenticeship or traineeship on permanent contracts? Have there been any changes to incentives over the period of the crisis? Are any such changes being proposed or being actively discussed at present in your country?

No such incentives exist. The government has not articulated any specific concerns over the emergence of temporary contracts among youths. On the other hand, it seems like the general trend has been towards increasing the opportunities for employers to use fixed-term contracts (Rönnmar, 2010) and increasing youth’s employability in general, in order to reduce the high unemployment rate among this age group. One such incentive is the introduction of a reduced payroll tax for youths below age 26. The purpose of the reform, which was implemented in 2007 and 2009, was to increase the opportunities for young workers to gain entry to the labour market. The payroll tax was reduced from 32.42 % to 21.30 % in the first reform in 2007 and to 15.74 % in the second reform in 2009.

As previously mentioned, apprenticeships and traineeships mainly exist in labour market policy programs and as upper secondary apprenticeship education. However, in November 2012, the government proposed a new form of fixed-term employment with a training dimension for young people. The proposed form of employment should only be available to a person under the age of 23, for a maximum of 18 months. The terms of reference state that the new form of employment is to make labour market establishment easier for youths, and provide incentives for smaller companies to employ. It is up to the employer and the employee to agree on what the training dimension is to consist of. The proposal further states that the training position should be converted to indefinite-term employment if it is not terminated prior to the end of the employment period. The position is expected to lead to the employee gaining the knowledge and skills the employer is in need of, and the employment is then to be converted to indefinite-term employment. It has not yet been decided if this new form of employment will be implemented (Ministry of Employment, 2012).

Another example of a measure were training is included is the job guarantee for youths (ef1242), targeting unemployed young people aged 16-24 who are registered with PES over three months. The aim with the measure is to offer employment services quickly to help young people to improve their chances of finding employment and education opportunities and thereby facilitating the transition school to work. In the job guarantee for youths job search activities are combined with active labour market measures such as work experience placements, traineeships, support in accessing education and training, and start-up funding.

3.3. Is the employment of young people on temporary contracts an important issue of concern for the social partners? Are there strong differences in attitudes and policies between employers and trade unions towards the use of temporary contracts? Have any initiatives been taken by the social partners, either jointly or separately, to encourage the use of permanent rather than temporary contracts? Have any specific initiatives been taken in respect of young people completing apprenticeships or traineeships over the types of job they are offered when their temporary position comes to an end?

The employment of young people on temporary contracts is of concern for social partners, but the attitudes towards the use differ among the organisations. The confederation of Swedish Enterprise (Svenskt Näringsliv) considers temporary contracts as a stepping stone to permanent jobs and argues that employment on temporary contracts are important in order to facilitate young people’s entry into the labour market (Svenskt Näringsliv, 2011). The use of temporary contracts, especially on-call working has been criticized by the Swedish Confederation of Trade Unions (Landsorganisationen i Sverige, LO) for being an insecure form of employment.

Employment of young people on temporary contracts is especially common in the hotel and restaurant sector (SE0812019Q), which has resulted in reactions from the Swedish Hotel and Restaurant Workers Union (HRF). HRF has criticized employers for abusing the use of young people on temporary contracts and for using temporary contracts as “the rule” instead of striving for permanent employment (HRF, 2007). The Swedish Confederation of Professional Employees’s (Tjänstemännens Centralorganisation, TCO) view is that fixed-term employment contracts have a place in today's labour market, but the trade union confederation is concerned about the fact that employees involuntary can become trapped in temporary employment over a long period of time. Therefore, TCO argues that employment contracts of an indefinite duration should be the general form of employment.

A common form of employment in the public sector is temporary substitute employment. The view of the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions (Sveriges Kommuner och Landsting, SALAR) is that substitutes play an important role since the sector is labour intensive and generally has limited financial resources, especially in the health care sector (SALAR, 2012).

No direct initiatives to encourage the use of temporary contracts have been taken by the social partners. One initiative that possibly could have had an impact on youth’s transition from school to work is the ‘job pact’, proposed by, Prime Minister Fredrik Reinfeldt in July 2012 (SE1208019I). The job pact was developed jointly by the Swedish social partners and the government, including the Swedish Trade Union Confederation (LO) and the Confederation of Swedish Enterprise (Svenskt Näringsliv). The job pact’s aim was to help unemployed youths to enter the labour market and to create 30,000 new jobs. The job pact was supposed to encourage firms to combine on-the-job training with education, but the details on how this would be done were not agreed upon. However, in the end of January 2013, the government announced that the negotiations had stranded due to disagreements between LO and Svenskt Näringsliv.


Temporary employees as a share of total employees aged 15-24, 2004-2011

 

% total employees

% point change

 

2004

2007

2009

2011

2004-2007

2007-2009

2009-2011

2007-2011

EU27

37.6

41.3

40.4

42.5

3.7

-0.9

2.1

1.2

BE

28.6

31.6

33.2

34.3

3.0

1.6

1.1

2.7

BG

15.3

10.3

9.3

8.3

-5.0

-1.0

-1.0

-2.0

CZ

18.0

17.4

18.7

22.3

-0.6

1.3

3.6

4.9

DK

26.9

22.5

22.8

22.1

-4.4

0.3

-0.7

-0.4

DE

55.5

57.4

57.3

56.0

1.9

-0.1

-1.3

-1.4

EE

:

:

:

13.8

 

   

 

IE

11.2

20.5

25.0

34.2

9.3

4.5

9.2

13.7

EL

26.3

27.0

28.4

30.1

0.7

1.4

1.7

3.1

ES

64.8

62.8

55.9

61.4

-2.0

-6.9

5.5

-1.4

FR

46.7

53.5

52.4

55.1

6.8

-1.1

2.7

1.6

IT

34.4

42.3

44.4

49.9

7.9

2.1

5.5

7.6

CY

16.1

23.3

18.4

17.2

7.2

-4.9

-1.2

-6.1

LV

17.3

9.3

9.3

10.7

-8.0

0.0

1.4

1.4

LT

13.8

9.8

5.0

9.1

-4.0

-4.8

4.1

-0.7

LU

24.1

34.1

39.3

34.5

10.0

5.2

-4.8

0.4

HU

15.1

19.1

21.4

22.9

4.0

2.3

1.5

3.8

MT

9.2

11.0

11.3

17.7

1.8

0.3

6.4

6.7

NL

37.9

45.1

46.5

47.7

7.2

1.4

1.2

2.6

AT

32.4

34.9

35.6

37.2

2.5

0.7

1.6

2.3

PL

60.6

65.7

62.0

65.6

5.1

-3.7

3.6

-0.1

PT

47.4

52.6

53.5

57.2

5.2

0.9

3.7

4.6

RO

6.6

4.6

3.7

5.8

-2.0

-0.9

2.1

1.2

SI

63.1

68.3

66.6

74.5

5.2

-1.7

7.9

6.2

SK

9.9

13.7

12.5

18.6

3.8

-1.2

6.1

4.9

FI

49.8

42.4

39.0

43.4

-7.4

-3.4

4.4

1.0

SE

53.1

57.1

53.4

57.3

4.0

-3.7

3.9

0.2

UK

11.0

13.3

11.9

13.5

2.3

-1.4

1.6

0.2

NO

31.2

28.0

25.7

24.3

-3.2

-2.3

-1.4

-3.7

Source: Eurostat, Labour Force Survey

         


Temporary employees as a share of total employees aged 25-29, 2004-2011

 

% total employees

% point change

 

2004

2007

2009

2011

2004-2007

2007-2009

2009-2011

2007-2011

EU27

19.5

21.1

20.2

21.4

1.6

-1.0

1.2

0.2

BE

12.4

13.1

12.5

14.6

0.7

-0.5

2.0

1.5

BG

9.0

5.3

4.4

4.2

-3.8

-0.8

-0.2

-1.0

CZ

9.8

8.1

8.4

10.8

-1.7

0.2

2.5

2.7

DK

16.5

13.9

13.8

16.4

-2.6

-0.1

2.7

2.5

DE

17.2

21.2

21.2

22.0

4.0

0.0

0.8

0.8

EE

3.0

1.8

4.2

4.2

-1.2

2.4

0.0

2.3

IE

3.4

10.1

9.5

12.7

6.7

-0.6

3.2

2.6

EL

18.4

16.1

19.9

19.0

-2.3

3.8

-1.0

2.9

ES

44.0

41.2

37.5

39.8

-2.7

-3.7

2.3

-1.5

FR

18.3

20.8

20.2

22.0

2.5

-0.6

1.8

1.2

IT

17.2

22.7

23.5

26.7

5.5

0.8

3.2

4.0

CY

19.2

17.7

16.2

18.1

-1.5

-1.5

1.9

0.4

LV

11.8

3.2

4.2

5.5

-8.6

1.0

1.4

2.3

LT

5.3

4.2

2.5

3.6

-1.1

-1.7

1.1

-0.6

LU

7.6

12.5

11.2

12.7

4.9

-1.2

1.5

0.3

HU

8.1

8.9

11.3

11.0

0.8

2.5

-0.3

2.2

MT

1.1

5.6

5.0

6.3

4.6

-0.6

1.3

0.6

NL

16.8

22.9

24.2

25.8

6.1

1.2

1.7

2.9

AT

10.0

8.8

9.6

9.8

-1.1

0.8

0.2

1.0

PL

33.8

38.7

35.6

38.9

4.9

-3.1

3.3

0.2

PT

30.3

36.6

38.6

39.2

6.3

2.0

0.6

2.6

RO

3.4

2.1

1.2

2.1

-1.3

-0.9

0.9

0.0

SI

30.7

33.7

34.1

33.9

2.9

0.4

-0.2

0.3

SK

6.8

5.7

4.1

7.7

-1.2

-1.6

3.7

2.1

FI

28.7

24.5

25.5

26.0

-4.2

1.1

0.5

1.5

SE

24.0

27.4

24.0

25.0

3.4

-3.3

1.0

-2.4

UK

6.2

7.1

6.3

5.0

0.9

-0.8

-1.3

-2.1

Source: Eurostat, European Labour Force Survey

       

References

Eurofound (2010) Sweden: Flexible forms of work: 'very atypical' contractual arrangements, SE0812019Q /ef/observatories/eurwork/erm/comparative-information/national-contributions/sweden/sweden-flexible-forms-of-work-very-atypical-contractual-arrangements

Eurofund (2012) Youth Guarantee: Experiences from Finland and Sweden, ef1242http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/publications/htmlfiles/ef1242.htm

European Union labour force survey (LFS), 2004 LFS ad hoc module on “Work organisation and working time arrangements” (2004)

Handels (2009) Handels om unga på arbetsmarknaden (report from the The Commercial Employees' Union) http://www.handels.se/Global/Media/Pressrum/Rapporter/Handelsomungasarbetsmarkn09.pdf

Harbo Hansen, N (2011) Limiting Long-Term Unemployment and Non-Participation in Sweden, OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 842, OECD Publishing

HRF (2007) Framtidsbranschen som glömde sina anställda (report from the Swedish Hotel and Restaurant Workers Union) http://www.hrf.net/sites/default/files/field/doc/rapport_framtidsbranschen_som_glomde_sina_anstallda.pdf

Ministry of Employment (2012) Betänkande av Utredningen om lärlingsprovanställning, SOU : 2012 :80 http://regeringen.se/sb/d/15533/a/204655

Nordström Skans, Oskar (2009) Varför är den svenska ungdomsarbetslösheten så hög? Report for the Swedish Fiscal Policy Council (Finanspolitiska Rådet) 2009:6, IFAU, Uppsala University and IZA, 2009. http://www.finanspolitiskaradet.se/download/18.1166db0f120540fe0498000209110/090609+Nordstr%C3%B6m+Skans.pdf

Rönnmar (2010) Labour Policy on Fixed-Term Work. Sweden, In: T. Araki and H. Nakakubo (guest eds), R. Blanpain (ed.), Bulletin of Comparative Labour Relations, Kluwer Law International, Alphen aan den Rijn 2010, pp. 157–173.

SALAR (2012) debate article: Vi behöver alla medarbetare och tidsbegränsade anställningar

http://www.skl.se/press/debattartiklar/debattartiklar-2012/vi-behover-alla-medarbetare-och-tidsbegransade-anstallningar

Statistics Sweden (2010) Labour Force Surveys: Third Quarter 2010

http://www.scb.se/Statistik/AM/AM0401/2010K03A/AM0401_2010K03A_SM_AM11SM1005.pdf

Statistic Sweden (2012) Labour force Survey 2004-2011.

Svenskt Näringsliv (2011) Debate article : Visstidsanställningar viktig väg till jobb för ungdomar

http://www.svensktnaringsliv.se/fragor/avtalsrorelsen2011_2012/visstidsanstallningar-viktig-vag-till-jobb-for-ungdomar_141472.html).

Jan Persson & Jenny Nordlöw, Oxford Research




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