New forms of employment

Report
Updated
21 October 2015
Published
12 March 2015
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Executive summary in 22 languages
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Abstract

Across Europe, new forms of employment are emerging that are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. Some transform the relationship between employer and employee, some change work organisation and work patterns, and some do both. This report identifiesRead more

Across Europe, new forms of employment are emerging that are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. Some transform the relationship between employer and employee, some change work organisation and work patterns, and some do both. This report identifies nine forms of employment that are new or have become increasingly important in Europe since the year 2000. While there is wide diversity in terms of their characteristics and employment relationship, all the forms aim to increase flexibility for employers and/or employees. Although some have the potential to benefit employers and employees equally, in a few cases concerns have been raised about their impact on working conditions and the labour market. The report concludes with recommendations about the need to raise awareness of the potential problems and establish safety nets for workers. 

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  • Report

    Number of pages: 
    168
    Reference no.: 
    EF1461
    ISBN: 
    978-92-897-1594-2
    Catalogue no.: 
    TJ-02-17-722-EN-N
    DOI: 
    10.2806/937385
    Catalogue info

    New forms of employment

    Across Europe, new forms of employment are emerging that are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. Some transform the relationship between employer and employee, some change work organisation and work patterns, and some do both. This report identifies nine forms of employment that are new or have become increasingly important in Europe since the year 2000.

    Formats

  • Executive summary

    Number of pages: 
    2
    Reference no.: 
    EF14611
    Catalogue info

    New forms of employment - Executive summary

    Author(s): 
    Eurofound

    Societal and economic developments, such as the need for increased flexibility by both employers and workers, have resulted in the emergence of new forms of employment across Europe. These have transformed the traditional one-to-one relationship between employer and employee. They are also characterised by unconventional work patterns and places of work, or by the irregular provision of work. However, little is known about these ‘new forms of employment’, their distinctive features and the implications they have for working conditions and the labour market. To fill this knowledge gap, Eurofound conducted a Europe-wide mapping exercise to identify the emerging trends. This resulted in the categorisation of nine broad types of new employment forms. Read more in the report - see Related content.

    Available for download in 22 languages

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  • Working papers

    Related working papers

    • AGZ Südbrandenburg
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Number of pages
      13
      Reference no.
      WPEF15001
    • Policy analysis
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Number of pages
      18
      Reference no.
      WPEF15002
    • Job’ Ardent
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Number of pages
      9
      Reference no.
      WPEF15003
    • Policy analysis
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Ramioul, Monique; Naedenoen, Frédéric
      Number of pages
      19
      Reference no.
      WPEF15004
    • Personal Connect and Manpower
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Number of pages
      7
      Reference no.
      WPEF15005
    • Human Garden and Nemos Sokolov
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Number of pages
      7
      Reference no.
      WPEF15006
    • Policy analysis
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Number of pages
      6
      Reference no.
      WPEF15007
    • Andelslag Labour Pool
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Vesala, Hanne
      Number of pages
      12
      Reference no.
      WPEF15008
    • AdPartners
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Flipo, Aurore
      Number of pages
      8
      Reference no.
      WPEF15009
    • Policy analysis
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Lang, Carole
      Number of pages
      11
      Reference no.
      WPEF15010
    • Groupement d’employeurs Île de Noirmoutier–Île d’Yeu
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Lang, Carole
      Number of pages
      10
      Reference no.
      WPEF15011
    • Fédération Isocel
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Lang, Carole
      Number of pages
      9
      Reference no.
      WPEF15012
    • Policy analysis
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Lang, Carole; Turlan, Frédéric; Bruggeman, Frédéric
      Number of pages
      26
      Reference no.
      WPEF15013
    • Two IT firms
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Gábor, Kártyás; Pázmány, Péter
      Number of pages
      10
      Reference no.
      WPEF15014
    • Policy analysis
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Gábor, Kártyás; Pázmány, Péter
      Number of pages
      20
      Reference no.
      WPEF15015
    • Lingjob
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Caicedo, Elma; Gineikytė, Vaida
      Number of pages
      10
      Reference no.
      WPEF15016
    • Textilcord and SolarWood
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Flipo, Aurore; Turlan, Frédéric
      Number of pages
      7
      Reference no.
      WPEF15017
    • ArcelorMittal
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Flipo, Aurore
      Number of pages
      11
      Reference no.
      WPEF15018
    • Policy analysis
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Lang, Carole
      Number of pages
      7
      Reference no.
      WPEF15019
    • Topdesigner.cz
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Number of pages
      7
      Reference no.
      WPEF15020
    • Clickworker
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Westhäußer, Katharina
      Number of pages
      14
      Reference no.
      WPEF15021
    • Boblr
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Nielsen, Helle Ourø; Høgenhaven Larsen, Sanna
      Number of pages
      7
      Reference no.
      WPEF15022
    • Adtriboo.com
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Number of pages
      12
      Reference no.
      WPEF15023
    • Academy of Ideas
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Romele, Linda
      Number of pages
      10
      Reference no.
      WPEF15024
    • Idea Hunting
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Perista, Heloísa; Carrilho, Paula
      Number of pages
      9
      Reference no.
      WPEF15025
    • Amazon Mechanical Turk
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Bergvall-Kareborn, Birgitta; Howcroft, Debra
      Number of pages
      12
      Reference no.
      WPEF15026
    • Taskhub
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Bergvall-Kareborn, Birgitta; Howcroft, Debra
      Number of pages
      11
      Reference no.
      WPEF15027
    • Grontmij
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Nielsen, Helle Ourø; Høgenhaven Larsen, Sanna
      Number of pages
      8
      Reference no.
      WPEF15028
    • Suomen Pienyrittäjäin Mainostoimisto
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Vesala, Hanne
      Number of pages
      10
      Reference no.
      WPEF15029
    • Microsoft Hellas
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Lampousaki, Sofia
      Number of pages
      8
      Reference no.
      WPEF15030
    • Belam Riga
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Romele, Linda
      Number of pages
      7
      Reference no.
      WPEF15031
    • YoungCapital
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Rossen, Lieselotte; Warmerdam, John; Vermeulen, Hedwig
      Number of pages
      10
      Reference no.
      WPEF15032
    • Hewlett-Packard Norway
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Rosenvinge Ervik, Marthe
      Number of pages
      9
      Reference no.
      WPEF15033
    • Faculty of Social Sciences at the University of Ljubljana
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Number of pages
      9
      Reference no.
      WPEF15034
    • Engbergs Transportsystem
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Number of pages
      6
      Reference no.
      WPEF15035
    • Office of Town District Prague 9
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Number of pages
      8
      Reference no.
      WPEF15036
    • University Medical Centre Ljubljana
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Number of pages
      8
      Reference no.
      WPEF15038
    • Policy analysis
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Number of pages
      7
      Reference no.
      WPEF15039
    • Hospital Piešťany
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Kahancová, Marta; Sedláková, Mária
      Number of pages
      9
      Reference no.
      WPEF15040
    • Policy analysis
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Kahancová, Marta; Sedláková, Mária
      Number of pages
      13
      Reference no.
      WPEF15041
    • Landelijk Dienstencoöperatief
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Ramioul, Monique; Van Peteghem, Jan
      Number of pages
      12
      Reference no.
      WPEF15042
    • Policy analysis
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Van Peteghem, Jan; Ramioul, Monique
      Number of pages
      15
      Reference no.
      WPEF15043
    • Gorizia municipality
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Rustico, Lisa
      Number of pages
      10
      Reference no.
      WPEF15044
    • Policy analysis
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Rustico, Lisa
      Number of pages
      11
      Reference no.
      WPEF15045
    • Slivers of Time
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Grimshaw, Damian; Cartwright, Jo
      Number of pages
      14
      Reference no.
      WPEF15046
    • Local government contracting of social care
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Rubery, Jill; Johnson, Mathew
      Number of pages
      17
      Reference no.
      WPEF15047
    • Werkheim
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Number of pages
      11
      Reference no.
      WPEF15049
    • Policy analysis
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Number of pages
      12
      Reference no.
      WPEF15050
    • Utopic_US
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Number of pages
      13
      Reference no.
      WPEF15051
    • Policy analysis
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Number of pages
      11
      Reference no.
      WPEF15052
    • West SA
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Kyriakidou, Olivia
      Number of pages
      10
      Reference no.
      WPEF15053
    • Policy analysis
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Kyriakidou, Olivia
      Number of pages
      13
      Reference no.
      WPEF15054
    • Plant nursery
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Caicedo, Elma; Melkūnaitė, Laura
      Number of pages
      10
      Reference no.
      WPEF15055
    • Policy analysis
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Caicedo, Elma; Gineikytė, Vaida
      Number of pages
      10
      Reference no.
      WPEF15056
    • Plastic packaging company
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Gábor, Kártyás; Pázmány, Péter
      Number of pages
      9
      Reference no.
      WPEF15057
    • Policy analysis
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Gábor, Kártyás; Pázmány, Péter
      Number of pages
      15
      Reference no.
      WPEF15058
    • Clock Advertising
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Presada, Florina
      Number of pages
      9
      Reference no.
      WPEF15059
    • Policy analysis
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Presada, Florina
      Number of pages
      12
      Reference no.
      WPEF15060
    • Company Case Study Ireland
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      O’Brien, Nolan
      Number of pages
      7
      Reference no.
      WPEF15061
    • Policy analysis
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      O’Brien, Nolan
      Number of pages
      8
      Reference no.
      WPEF15062
    • Anonymous care organisations
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Rossen, Lieselotte; Warmerdam, John; Vermeulen, Hedwig
      Number of pages
      10
      Reference no.
      WPEF15063
    • Policy analysis
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Rossen, Lieselotte; Warmerdam, John; Vermeulen, Hedwig
      Number of pages
      15
      Reference no.
      WPEF15064
    • Policy analysis
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Number of pages
      20
      Reference no.
      WPEF15065
    • Policy analysis
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Number of pages
      12
      Reference no.
      WPEF15066
    • Exploring the transferability of the employment form
      Case study
      21 October 2015
      Author(s)
      Number of pages
      11
      Reference no.
      WPEF15067
  • Case studies

    The ‘New forms of employment’ report is based on 67 individual case studies from across Europe that represent a variety of employment forms. The cases studies either deal with a specific employer-worker relationship or comprise a policy analysis (legislation or collective agreement, public support instrument). The list below details the case studies. For the report on strategic employee sharing, the case studies on the policy analysis in Germany, Belgium, France, Hungary and Austria for this employment form have been updated, and an additional case study on Ireland has been conducted.

    No. Employment form Country Type of case study
    1 Employee sharing Germany AGZ Südbrandenburg
    2 Employee sharing Germany Policy analysis
    3 Employee sharing Belgium JobArdent
    4 Employee sharing Belgium Policy analysis
    5 Interim management Czech Republic Personal Connect and Manpower
    6 Interim management Czech Republic Human Garden and Nemos Sokolov
    7 Employee sharing Czech Republic Policy analysis
    8 Employee sharing Finland Andelslag
    9 Collaborative employment France AdPartners
    10 Collaborative employment France Policy analysis
    11 Employee sharing France Île de Noirmoutier - Île d'Yeu
    12 Employee sharing France Fédération Isocel
    13 Employee sharing France Policy analysis
    14 Employee sharing Hungary Two IT firms
    15 Employee sharing Hungary Policy analysis
    16 Platform work Lithuania LingJob
    17 Employee sharing Luxembourg Textilcord and SolarWood
    18 Employee sharing Luxembourg ArcelorMittal
    19 Employee sharing Luxembourg Policy analysis
    20 Platform work Czech Republic Topdesigner.cz
    21 Platform work Germany Clickworker
    22 Platform work Denmark Boblr
    23 Platform work Spain Adtriboo
    24 Platform work Latvia Academy of Ideas
    25 Platform work Portugal Idea Hunting
    26 Platform work United Kingdom Amazon Mechanical Turk
    27 Platform work United Kingdom Taskhub
    28 ICT-based mobile work Denmark Grontmij
    29 ICT-based mobile work Finland Suomen Pienyrittäjäin Mainostoimisto
    30 ICT-based mobile work Greece Microsoft Hellas
    31 ICT-based mobile work Latvia Belam-Riga
    32 ICT-based mobile work The Netherlands YoungCapital
    33 ICT-based mobile work Norway Hewlett-Packard Norway
    34 ICT-based mobile work Slovenia Faculty of Social Sciences at the University of Ljubljana
    35 ICT-based mobile work Sweden Engbergs Transportsystem
    36 Job sharing Czech Republic Town District Prague 9
    37 Job sharing Poland Krakow Regional Labour Office
    38 Job sharing Slovenia University Medical Centre Ljubljana
    39 Job sharing Slovenia Policy analysis
    40 Casual work Slovakia Piešťany Hospital
    41 Job sharing, casual work Slovakia Policy analysis
    42 Voucher-based work Belgium Landelijk Dienstencoöperatief
    43 Voucher-based work Belgium Policy analysis
    44 Voucher-based work Italy Municipality of Gorizia
    45 Voucher-based work Italy Policy analysis
    46 Casual work United Kingdom Slivers of Time
    47 Casual work United Kingdom Local government contracting of social care
    48 Casual work United Kingdom Policy analysis
    49 Collaborative employment Germany Werkheim Hamburg
    50 Collaborative employment Germany Policy analysis
    51 Collaborative employment Spain Utopic_US
    52 Collaborative employment Spain Policy analysis
    53 Voucher-based work Greece West SA
    54 Voucher-based work Greece Policy analysis
    55 Voucher-based work Lithuania Plant nursery
    56 Voucher-based work Lithuania Policy analysis
    57 Casual work Hungary Plastic packaging company
    58 Casual work Hungary Policy analysis
    59 Casual work Romania Clock Advertising
    60 Casual work Romania Policy analysis
    61 Casual work Ireland Company case study
    62 Casual work Ireland Policy analysis
    63 Casual work The Netherlands Childcare company
    64 Casual work The Netherlands Policy analysis
    65 Employee sharing Austria Policy analysis
    66 Voucher-based work Austria Policy analysis
    67 Employee sharing Ireland Exploring the transferability of the employment form

Case studies published alongside this report have not been subject to the full Eurofound evaluation, editorial and publication process.

Part of the series

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

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