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  • Article
    27 May 1997

    Total Quality Management (TQM) has been a leading development of the 1990s in
    Britain. Surveys find that almost three-quarters of organisations claim to
    have formal quality programmes, which are believed to work by increasing
    employees' interest in their jobs and their understanding of how their work
    contributes to organisational goals. Many of these programmes have been
    introduced in the past five years. Definitions of TQM vary but its core
    comprises: a focus on the customer; the improvement and inter-linking of
    business processes; and continuous improvement ("Making quality critical", A
    Wilkinson and H Willmott, eds, London, Routledge, 1995.).

  • Article
    27 May 1997

    The high number of industrial injuries, recently reported by the Labour
    Inspectorate, have fuelled the debate on the new Work Environment Act, which
    is a part of the Government's action plan /Improved work environment year
    2005/. According to the report on /Reported industrial injuries in the
    building and construction sector, 1993-1995/, the sector experienced a 22%
    increase in industrial injuries over the period in question (DK9704107F [1]).

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined/danish-building-and-construction-sites-are-hazardous-workplaces

  • Article
    27 May 1997

    The recession affecting Portuguese companies from 1991 to 1994 showed that
    the difficulties faced by the country stemmed not just from economic
    circumstances. Rather, the roots were far more complex and called for
    structural changes to competitive factors involving the very fabric of
    business and a general remodelling of managerial capacity, vocational
    qualifications and financial structure.

  • Article
    27 May 1997

    On 22 April 1997 the European Court of Justice (ECJ) issued a judgment
    stating that some provisions of the German Civil Law (Bürgerliches
    Gesetzbuch,BGB) as well as the German Labour Court Law
    (Arbeitsgerichtsgesetz, ArbGG) offend against the "Council Directive on the
    implementation of the principle of equal treatment for men and women as
    regards access to employment, vocational training and promotion and working
    conditions" (76/207/EEC). The Directive which was adopted by the Council of
    Ministers on 9 February 1976 proclaimed that the Member States shall put into
    effect the "principle of equal treatment" (§ 1) which means "that there
    shall be no discrimination whatsoever on grounds of sex either directly or
    indirectly" (§ 2).

  • Article
    27 May 1997

    In anticipation of the spring 1997 collective bargaining round, pilots at
    Royal Dutch Airlines (KLM) are considering contributing to the company's
    cost-cutting programme by exchanging salaries for share options and an
    increased say in company policy. Unions are divided over this exchange.

  • Article
    27 May 1997

    Following the settlement of the public service nurses pay dispute (IE9702104N
    [1]), health workers, prisons officers, police and other public service
    groups have been seeking follow-on increases based on parity claims - all of
    which relate to the settlement secured by Ireland's 25,000 nurses.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/national-nurses-strike-averted-as-pay-offer-is-accepted

  • Article
    27 May 1997

    In the retail and distributive sector, each type of shop - conventional
    department stores, retail shops, food supermarkets with at least two branches
    and independent retail shops - is covered by its own joint committee [1] and,
    depending on its type, its employees work 36, 38 or 40 hours a week, have pay
    differentials of between 20%- 25% and the right to be represented by a union
    delegation [2] or not.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/efemiredictionary/joint-committee
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/efemiredictionary/union-delegation

  • Article
    27 May 1997

    The Confederation of British Industry (CBI) announced in April 1997 that
    "absenteeism" - the non-attendance of workers who are expected to be at work
    - had cost UK business GBP 12 billion in 1996; an average of GBP 533 for
    every employee. Just prior to the CBI announcement, the Manufacturing,
    Science, Finance (MSF) trade union had announced the results of a survey
    which highlighted the lack of a "feel-good" factor among employees due to
    increasing job insecurity ("Union survey suggest little 'feel good effect' in
    reality", MSF press release (8 April 1997)). These kinds of surveys have
    elements in common, yet few acknowledge or even see what the linkages are.

  • Article
    27 April 1997

    After the Brussels Industrial tribunal (BE9704208N [1]), on 4 April it was a
    French court's turn to find Renault's management guilty of disobeying the law
    in a ruling which could well postpone the closure of the Vilvorde plant.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/tribunal-decision-annuls-renault-closure

  • Article
    27 April 1997

    Just one week after the German social partners and Government found a
    compromise on the future development of the German mining industry
    (DE9703104F [1]) the Ruhr region (one of Germany's oldest industrial areas)
    was again the focus of social conflict. On 18 March 1997 the second-largest
    German steel producer, Krupp-Hoesch, announced plans for a hostile takeover
    of its main competitor, Thyssen. Krupp-Hoesch made an offer to the Thyssen
    shareholders to buy their shares for DEM 435 each, which was about 25% higher
    than the current quotation on the German stock exchange. The president of
    Krupp-Hoesch, Gerhard Cromme, stated that the acquisition of Thyssen would
    create a lot of synergy effects, and could help to improve the international
    competitiveness of the German steel industry.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined/miners-revolt-ends-in-corporatist-compromise

Series

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

  • European Quality of Life Surveys

    The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.

  • European Jobs Monitor

    This series brings together publications and other outputs of the European Jobs Monitor (EJM), which tracks structural change in European labour markets. The EJM analyses shifts in the employment structure in the EU in terms of occupation and sector and gives a qualitative assessment of these shifts using various proxies of job quality – wages, skill-levels, etc.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2016

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2016, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003. 

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2015

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2015, the sixth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 1996

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 1996, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2001

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2001, which was an extension of the EWCS 2000 to cover the then 12 acceding and candidate countries. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2000

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2000, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Company Survey 2004

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the first edition of the survey carried out in 2004–2005 under the name European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

Forthcoming publications

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