One of the most striking developments of the last half-century has been the huge rise in the labour market participation of women. Two out of every three net new jobs created over the last two decades in the EU were taken by women. At the same time, sharply rising employment rates among older workers due to population ageing and policy changes have increased the share of older workers in the labour market. This report examines the impacts of the changing contours of labour supply on the employment structure over the last quarter-century in Europe (1995–2019).
European Jobs Monitor
- Published between
- 13 March 2013 - 14 December 2021
This series brings together publications and other outputs of the European Jobs Monitor (EJM), which tracks structural change in European labour markets. The EJM analyses shifts in the employment structure in the EU in terms of occupation and sector and gives a qualitative assessment of these shifts using various proxies of job quality – wages, skill-levels, etc.
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- Policy brief14 December 2021
Despite the increasing participation of women in the labour market and a higher share of women than men being hired into well-paid jobs in recent years, a gender pay gap exists across all EU Member States. Pay differentials between women and men have been shown to be significantly influenced by the economic sector where people work and the occupation they hold.
- Blog29 October 2019
Economic disparities have been decreasing between EU member states over the past decade, but at the same time inequality has been growing within member states. Despite national level convergence, the gap in wealth and income between the rich and the poor is growing in most of Europe. Some of this rise has been attributed to increasing returns to education pushing earnings up faster for those in jobs requiring higher levels of education – while wages stagnate for the rest.
- Report7 October 2019
Accumulating evidence indicates that large metropolitan centres are faring much better than other regions within the Member States of the EU. Such interregional inequality contributes to disenchantment with existing political systems, which in turn can weaken the social bonds that ground democratic systems. This is the context for the 2019 edition of the European Jobs Monitor, which analyses shifts in the employment structure – meaning change in the distribution of employment across occupations and sectors – of the EU regions.
- Report26 June 2017
In 2016, somewhat later than in other developed economies, the EU recovered all the net employment losses sustained since the global financial crisis. Employment growth since 2013 has been only modestly skewed towards well-paid jobs; growth has been robust in low-paid and mid-paid jobs too. Newer jobs are increasingly likely to be full time rather than part time. Part 1 of this sixth annual European Jobs Monitor report takes a detailed look at shifts in employment at Member State and EU levels from 2011 Q2 to 2016 Q2. Part 2 examines the role that occupations play in structuring European wage inequality.
- Report20 June 2016
The European Jobs Monitor 2016 looks at 2011 Q2–2015 Q2 employment shifts at Member State and aggregate EU level. A ‘jobs-based’ approach is used to describe employment shifts quantitatively (how many jobs were created or destroyed) and qualitatively (what kinds of jobs). It also introduces a new set of indicators on the task content, methods and tools used at work.
- Report9 July 2015
Europe has begun to emerge from the prolonged slump caused by the global financial crisis in 2008 and exacerbated by the euro zone single-currency crisis in 2010–2011. In the last year, aggregate employment levels have risen faster than at any time since 2008. This, the fourth annual European Jobs Monitor report, looks in detail at shifts in the employment structure at Member State and aggregate EU level over 2011–2014. The objective is to assess the extent to which recent shifts are polarising, arising from a decline in mid-paid jobs, or upgrading as a result of growth in high-paid jobs.
- Report7 July 2014
This report looks in detail at recent shifts in the employment structure at Member State and EU level, examining the main sectors and occupations that have contributed to job loss and job growth. It finds, for example, that in 2011–2013, the majority of net employment losses continued to occur in middle-paid and low-to-middle-paid jobs in construction and manufacturing. Employment growth remained resilient in high-paid, high-skilled jobs, and knowledge-intensive services have been the main source of this growth. The report also examines some of the likely drivers behind the changing employment structure: technological change, globalisation and labour market institutions.
- Report13 March 2013
This report describes recent structural shifts in employment in European labour markets before, during and after the 2008–2009 recession. It finds that employment destruction across Europe in the recession was strongly polarising in terms of the wage structure, while there was less polarisation in 2010–2012. A jobs based approach identifies how net employment shifts at Member State and EU level have been distributed across jobs in different quintiles of the wage distribution.
Working papersDisplaying 1 - 6 of 6