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  • Article
    27 March 1997

    On 19 March 1997, Parliament passed a reform of the Arbeitszeitgesetz(AZG,
    Working Time Act) - see Record AT9702102F [1]. This necessitated minor
    changes to the Arbeitsruhegesetz(ARG, Leisure Time Act) which were also
    passed on 19 March. However, the parliamentary Labour and Social Affairs
    Committee, at the behest of the social partners, had introduced wording
    allowing more flexibility than hitherto in regard to Sunday work, causing a
    major public debate in its wake. In future it will be possible for the social
    partners to conclude collective agreements permitting exceptions from the
    general ban on Sunday work. They can only do so, the law states, if it is
    necessary in order to avoid economic disadvantage or to safeguard employment.
    As far as this is feasible, the collective agreement has to specify the
    activities to be permissible on Sundays and the time allowed for them. Until
    now it was not possible to grant specific exemptions from the ban on Sunday
    work except if the technology required continuous production. The Minister of
    Labour and Social Affairs could, however, permit a whole industry to work on
    Sundays.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined-law-and-regulation/moves-towards-greater-working-time-flexibility

  • Article
    27 March 1997

    Legislative changes have been introduced affecting "atypical" work under the
    Contracts of Employment Act, the Study Leave Act and the Occupational Safety
    Act. The changes came into force at the beginning of February and they aim to
    bring the legal status of persons in such work closer to the status of
    persons under a regular employment contract.

  • Article
    27 March 1997

    The 1994 labour market reform led to a spectacular increase in part-time
    employment contracts, which had hardly been used in Spain before that time.
    This feature describes this development and points out the main
    characteristics of the workers employed under these contracts, who are mainly
    women.

  • Article
    27 March 1997

    Until recent years, largely due to the voluntary system of industrial
    relations in the UK, a universal national minimum wage has never been more
    than a passing thought. Instead, because of the growing awareness of poor
    working conditions and low wages, trade boards were established in 1909 in
    certain "sweated trades" to set minimum wages and standards. The areas and
    industries under the boards' coverage began to widen, so that by the time
    they became known as Wages Councils (WCs) in 1945 they covered some 4.5
    million workers. But from the 1960s, the WCs came under increasing criticism
    for three main reasons:

  • Article
    27 March 1997

    On 5 March 1997 the European Commission issued a Memorandum on the
    interpretation of the 1977 Directive on business transfers (77/187/EEC) which
    aims to clarify certain aspects of the Directive. It also seeks to address
    the criticisms levied against the draft Directive to replace the 1977 text,
    launched by the Commission in 1994. The proposed draft sought to take into
    account the changed business environment following the implementation of the
    single market project.

  • Article
    27 March 1997

    After a legal battle lasting more than three years between the management of
    La Samaritaine (one of the five large Paris department stores), and its works
    council and CGT union branch, two rulings by the highest court in the French
    legal system on 13 February 1997, imposed the reinstatement of staff made
    redundant, as part of the cancellation of a corporate "downsizing" procedure
    (plan social). These rulings reveal the growing role of judges in the
    supervision of redundancies.

  • Article
    27 March 1997

    The major labour market reform legislation of 1994 made important changes to
    the framework for collective bargaining in Spain. This feature examines
    bargaining trends since 1994, and analyses the positions of the parties
    involved and the results of the reform.

  • Article
    27 March 1997

    The typical trade union member of the future could well be a 30-year-old
    female VDU operator, balancing both work and family responsibilities,
    according to the TUC. A new report launched at the TUC's women's conference
    held in Scarborough on 12-14 March, argues that if unions can rise to the
    challenge, the number of women members could increase by as many as 400,000
    by the turn of the century. According to the report (/Women and the new
    unionism/), women now make up half of the workforce, but only a third are
    members of a union. Young women are thought to be particularly difficult to
    organise. Only 6% of women employees under the age of 20 years are presently
    union members, compared with 24% aged between 20 and 29 years old.

  • Article
    27 March 1997

    In its response to the Commission's September 1996 Communication on the
    development of the social dialogue (see Record EU9702102F [1]), UNICE (the
    Union of Industrial and Employers' Confederations of Europe) welcomes the
    opportunity for debate and calls for a reinforcement of consultation with the
    social partners. However, it argues that the treatment of fundamentally
    different processes in one Communication adds a source of confusion to the
    debate. These varied processes include: the consultation and negotiation
    within the meaning of Article 118B of the EC Treaty and Article 3.1 of the
    Agreement on social policy; Advisory Committees; the Standing Committee on
    Employment; the joint sectoral committees and informal working groups;
    tripartite bodies; joint operational initiatives; European Works Councils,
    and the social dialogue in trans-boundary region. UNICE feels that the
    Communication should have:

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined-industrial-relations/the-future-of-the-social-dialogue-at-community-level

Series

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2003

    Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2007

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2012

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003. 

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2005

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2010

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Manufacturing employment outlook

    This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.

Forthcoming publications

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