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  • Article
    27 September 1997

    The Austrian Government is aiming to finalise its pension reform effort
    (AT9707118F [1]) before the end of 1997. Essentially it consists of two
    components: lowering pension entitlements and widening the contributor base
    to the four national pension schemes. The latter is to be achieved by
    including the self-employed as well as part-timers earning less than the
    subsistence minimum, and by placing disincentives in the way of early
    retirement. These discincentives are designed as a trade-off between the
    length of the retirement and the size of the pension. For every year of
    retirement before the standard pension eligibility age - ie 60 for women and
    65 for men - the pension is to be reduced by 2%. Expert advice was to
    institute a 4% reduction per year. The lowering of pension entitlements, in
    addition to this trade-off element, has a number of other components, chiefly
    the lengthening of the base period on which pensions are computed from 15 to
    20 years in the case of early retirement, and a new formula for pension
    adjustments from the year 2000. The new formula is to be thrashed out by
    experts in 1998. The longer base period, according to the Austrian Trade
    Union Federation (Österreichischer Gewerkschaftsbund, ÖGB), will result in
    new pensions being 4% to 5% lower on average than they would be with a
    15-year base period. In the civil service, no such base period currently
    exists, and here the Government intends gradually to introduce a 15-year base
    period between 1999 and 2012.


  • Article
    27 September 1997

    On 10 September 1997, the economic part of the industry-wide collective
    agreement for the Italian shoe sector was renewed for the two-year period
    1997/8. The contract foresees increases in wages and the setting up of a
    common supplementary pension fund for the workers of both the shoe sector and
    the textile and clothing sector.

  • Article
    27 September 1997

    A new study by Dublin's Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI) -
    "Earnings distribution and returns to education in Ireland, 1987-94", Alan
    Barrett, Tim Callen and Brian Nolan, ESRI Working Paper 85, June 1997- shows
    that there has been a higher degree of wage dispersion than might have been
    expected in Ireland, but that this may be largely explained by increased
    returns to higher education over the period of the study. Published in June
    1997, the study also shows that by 1994, Ireland had one of the highest
    levels of low-paid workers in the OECD.

  • Article
    27 September 1997

    The "Medium-term Employment Plan" published by the Spanish Government in
    September 1997 consolidates into one text all existing measures aimed at
    creating employment and improving its quality. The text calls for secure
    employment and even refers to the possible creation of a million jobs by

  • Article
    27 September 1997

    The conclusion in July 1997 (EU9707141N [1]) of the recommendation framework
    agreement on the improvement of paid employment in agriculture stands at the
    end of a long process of negotiation between the European social partners in
    the sector. The partners are GEOPA- the Employers' Group of theCommittee of
    Agricultural Organisations in the European Union (COPA) - which represents
    those agricultural undertakings in Europe which employ paid staff, and the
    European Federation of Agricultural Workers' Unions (EFA), - one of the
    European industry committees of the European Trade Union Confederation


  • Article
    27 September 1997

    In September 1997, Amsterdam's dock workers employed by the Association of
    Dock Industries organised protests after the Randstad temporary employment
    agency decided not to become involved in an SHB financial rescue plan when
    its bankruptcy appeared imminent. Some 150 employees are likely to be made

  • Article
    27 August 1997

    On 21 July 1997, the Italian subsidiaries of the Electrolux-Zanussi group and
    trade unions agreed to relaunch the company's participative industrial
    relations system, which had broken down earlier in the year.

  • Article
    27 August 1997

    Danish employees feel less job insecurity than their counterparts in other
    Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, it
    emerges from a report in the OECD's 1997 Employment Outlook [1]. On average,
    seven out of 10 employees in the OECD countries examined disagree with the
    statement "my job is secure", whereas in Denmark only four out of 10
    employees do so. In contrast to most OECD countries, there is no difference
    discernible in feelings on job security between white- and blue-collar Danish
    employees, nor between employees in industry, services or public
    administration. In other OECD countries, blue-collar employees in industry
    and the services sector feel more insecure about their jobs than white-collar
    workers in public administration.



  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2020. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in two rounds – in April and in July 2020. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

  • European Quality of Life Surveys

    The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.

Forthcoming publications