Coding and classification standards

The following international standards for coding and classification were used:

  • economic activity (the sector in which the respondent works): coded according to NACE Rev.1.1, 2-digit version
  • occupation: recorded verbatim and coded according to ISCO 88 (COM)
  • education: coded according to modified version of ISCED-97

Sector

Statistical Classification of Economic Activities
(NACE Rev. 1.1)
Section
Sub-section
Economic activity
No. of Digits
A, B
 
agriculture, hunting and forestry + fishing
1 digit
C
 
mining and quarrying
1 digit
D
 
manufacturing
2 digits
 
15+16
food products, beverages and tobacco
 
 
17+18+19
textiles, clothing and leather
 
 
20+21
wood industry, paper
 
 
22
publishing, printing
 
 
23+24+25+26
chemical, rubber, mineral
 
 
27+28+29+30
metal products and machinery
 
 
31+32+33
electrical and electronics, precision instruments
 
 
34+35
automobile and other transport equipment
 
 
36
furniture
 
E
 
electricity, gas and water supply
1 digit
F
 
Construction
1 digit
G
 
wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles, motorcycles and personal and household goods
1 digit
H
 
hotels and restaurants
1 digit
I
 
transport, storage and communication
2 digits
 
60
land transport
 
 
61+62+63
water,air sampling activities
 
 
64
post and telecommunications
 
J
 
financial intermediation
2 digits
 
65+67
financial intermediation and auxiliary activities
 
&
66
insurance
 
K
 
real estate, renting and business activities
1 digit
L
 
public administration and defence, compulsory social security
1 digit
M
 
education
1 digit
N
 
health and social work
1 digit
O
 
other community, social and personal service activities
1 digit
P+Q
 
private households with employed persons, extra-territorial organisations and bodies
1 digit

Occupation

International Standard Classification of Occupations
(ISCO-88 (COM))
1
Legislators, senior officials and managers
(1 digit)
2
Professionals
(1 digit)
3
Technicians and associate professionals
(1 digit)
4
Clerks
(1 digit)
5
Service workers and shop and market sales workers
(1 digit)
6
Skilled agricultural and fishery workers
(1 digit)
7
Craft and related trades workers
(1 digit)
8
Plant and machine operators and assemblers
(1 digit)
9
Elementary occupations
(1 digit)
10
Armed forces
(1 digit)

The type of occupation is defined according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations, ISCO-88, 1-digit level. In the survey, four categories of employees are distinguished:

  • high skilled white collar (ISCO codes 1,2 and 3) includes legislators, senior officials and managers, professionals and technicians and associate professionals;
  • low skilled white collar (ISCO codes 4 and 5) includes clerks and service workers and shop and market sales workers;
  • high skilled blue collar (ISCO codes 6 and 7) includes skilled agricultural and fishery workers and craft and related trades workers;
  • low skilled blue collar (ISCO codes 8 and 9) includes plant and machine operators and assemblers and elementary occupations.

Armed forces are excluded.

Education

The respondents were divided into 6 categories of educational level, based on an adapted version of ISCED-97:

Revised International Standard Classification on Education (ISCED-97)
no education
ISCED 0
primary education
ISCED 1
lower secondary education
ISCED 2
higher secondary education
ISCED 3
post-secondary non-tertiary education
ISCED 4
university degree
ISCED 5
postgraduate studies
ISCED 6