EMCC European Monitoring Centre on Change

Restructuring related legislation

Eurofound’s ERM database on restructuring related legal regulations provides information on regulations in the Member States of the European Union and Norway which are explicitly or implicitly linked to anticipating and managing change. The database covers statutory rules, only, and does not include collective agreements or company-level initiatives. The regulations are described in terms of their content, thresholds, involved actors and who covers the cost (if applicable). The aim is to provide an easy possibility of a cross-national comparison of the main features of restructuring related legislation.

Eurofound aims to keep this information up to date and accurate. If errors are brought to our attention, we will try to correct them. However, Eurofound accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to the information in this database. This information is:

  • of a general nature only and is not intended to address the specific circumstances of any particular individual or entity; not necessarily comprehensive, complete, accurate or up to date;
  • sometimes linked to external sites over which Eurofound services have no control and for which Eurofound assumes no responsibility;
  • not professional or legal advice (if specific advice is needed, a suitably qualified professional should be consulted).

Research carried out prior to the UK’s withdrawal from the European Union on 31 January 2020, and published subsequently, may include data relating to the 28 EU Member States. Following this date, research only takes into account the 27 EU Member States (EU28 minus the UK), unless specified otherwise.

486 items found


Make your selection by using the filters below. Multiple selection and a combination of filters can be used.

  • CountryEU 27 + UK and Norway
  • Titlethe title is made up of the country name and type, for example: Austria: working time flexibility
  • PhaseEither anticipation or management
    • Anticipationrefers to activities that help to prepare workers or companies for change.
    • Managementcovers activities required to handle a current restructuring event while minimising social costs. It refers to the steps involved in implementing an organisational change process.
  • Typethe range includes, for example, provisions for collective dismissal, information/consultation obligations, notice periods and severance payments, training obligations for employers and employees and regulations concerning working time flexibility
  • Choose bywhether the regulation is obligatory in all circumstances or only for companies over a certain size or cases affecting a certain number of workers
  • Cost covered by
    • no specific additional costs are involved
    • costs covered by national or regional governments
    • cost covered by companies in general or the specific employer undergoing restructuring
    • cost covered by employees
  • Involved actorsincluding regional or local government, works councils, employers’ organisations, trade union or public employment services. The national government, as legislator, is assumed to be involved in all regulations so is not included as a filter option.
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Titel Country Typsortera i stigande ordning Lokalt namn Engelskt namn
Slovenia: Definition of collective dismissal Slovenia Definition of collective dismissal Zakon o delovnih razmerjih (ZDR-1) Employment Relationship Act (ZDR-1)
Bulgaria: Definition of collective dismissal Bulgaria Definition of collective dismissal Кодекс на труда Labour Code
Croatia: Definition of collective dismissal Croatia Definition of collective dismissal Zakon o radu 93/2014, 127/17, 98/19 Labour Act 93/2014, 127/17, 98/19
Germany: Definition of collective dismissal Germany Definition of collective dismissal Kündigungsschutzgesetz Employment Protection Act
Cyprus: Definition of collective dismissal Cyprus Definition of collective dismissal Ν. 28(I)/2001 - Ο περί Ομαδικών Απολύσεων Νόμος του 2001; N. 161/I/2018 - Ο ΠΕΡΙ ΟΜΑΔΙΚΩΝ ΑΠΟΛΥΣΕΩΝ (ΤΡΟΠΟΠΟΙΗΤΙΚΟΣ) ΝΟΜΟΣ ΤΟΥ 2018 Collective Dismissals Law of 2001 (Law 28(I)/2001); The Collective Redundancies (Amendment) Law of 2018 (Law 161 (I) / 2018)
Malta: Definition of collective dismissal Malta Definition of collective dismissal Leġislazzjoni Sussidjarja 452.80 - Regolamenti dwar Sensji Kollettivi (Harsien ta’ l-Impjiegi) (Avviż Legali 428 tal-2002 kif emendat bl- Avviżi Legali 427 u 442 tal-2004 u Avviz Legali 281 of 2017​) Subsidiary Legislation 452.80 - Collective Redundancies (Protection of Employment) Regulations (Legal Notice 428 of 2002 as amended by Legal Notices 427 and 442 of 2004 and L.N. 281 of 2017)
Hungary: Definition of collective dismissal Hungary Definition of collective dismissal 2012. évi I. törvény a Munka Törvénykönyvéről Act I of 2012 on the Labor Code
Greece: Definition of collective dismissal Greece Definition of collective dismissal Νόμος 4554/2018: Aσφαλιστικές και συνταξιοδοτικές ρυθμίσεις - Αντιμετώπιση της αδήλωτης εργασίας - Ενίσχυση της προστασίας των εργαζομένων - Επιτροπεία ασυνόδευτων ανηλίκων και άλλες διατάξεις, ( ΦΕΚ Α΄ 130/18.07.2018); Νόμος 4472/2017: Συνταξιοδοτικές διατάξεις Δημοσίου και τροποποίηση διατάξεων του ν. 4387/2016, μέτρα εφαρμογής των δημοσιονομικών στόχων και μεταρρυθμίσεων, μέτρα κοινωνικής στήριξης και εργασιακές ρυθμίσεις, Μεσοπρόθεσμο Πλαίσιο Δημοσιονομικής Στρατηγικής 2018-2021 και λοιπές διατάξεις ((ΦΕΚ Α' 74/19-5-2017 Ά 74/19.05.2017); Ν. 1387/1983: Έλεγχος ομαδικών απολύσεων και άλλες διατάξεις; N. 3863/2010: Νέο Ασφαλιστικό Σύστημα και συναφείς διατάξεις. Ρυθμίσεις στις Eργασιακές Σχέσεις Law 4554/2018: Insurance and pension regulations - Tackling undeclared work - strengthening the employees’ protection - Guardianship of unaccompanied minors and other provisions (OJHR A-130/18.07.2018); Law 4472/2017: on implementation measures for fiscal goals and reforms, medium-term financial strategy framework 2018-2021 and other provisions (Government Gazette Ά 74/19.05.2017); Law 1387/1983: on collective dismissals; Law 3863/2010: New social security system and related provisions. Regulation of labour relations
Luxembourg: Definition of collective dismissal Luxembourg Definition of collective dismissal Code du travail Labour Code
Netherlands: Definition of collective dismissal Netherlands Definition of collective dismissal Wet Melding Collectief Ontslag (WMCO) Collective Redundancy Notification Act
Ireland: Definition of collective dismissal Ireland Definition of collective dismissal Protection of Employment Act, 1977 (as amended by S.I. No. 370/1996 Protection of Employment Order 1996 and S.I. No. 488/2000 Protection of Employment Regulations 2000) Protection of Employment Act, 1977 (as amended by S.I. No. 370/1996 Protection of Employment Order 1996 and S.I. No. 488/2000 Protection of Employment Regulations 2000)
United Kingdom: Definition of collective dismissal United Kingdom Definition of collective dismissal Collective Redundancies and Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) (Amendment) Regulations 1995; Collective Redundancies and Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) (Amendment) Regulations 2014; Employment Rights Act 1996; Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 Collective Redundancies and Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) (Amendment) Regulations 1995; Collective Redundancies and Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) (Amendment) Regulations 2014; Employment Rights Act 1996; Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992
Lithuania: Definition of collective dismissal Lithuania Definition of collective dismissal Darbo kodeksas Nr. XII-2603 Labour code No XII-2603
Italy: Definition of collective dismissal Italy Definition of collective dismissal Legge 23 luglio 1991, n. 223, Norme in materia di cassa integrazione, mobilità, trattamenti di disoccupazione, attuazione di direttive della Comunità europea, avviamento al lavoro ed altre disposizioni in materia di mercato del lavoro; Decreto Legislativo 8 aprile 1004, n. 110, Modifiche ed integrazioni alla legge 23 luglio 1991, n. 223, in materia di licenziamenti collettivi; Decreto legislativo n. 149 14/09/2015 Disposizioni per la razionalizzazione e la semplificazione dell'attività ispettiva in materia di lavoro e legislazione sociale, in attuazione della legge 10 dicembre 2014, n. 183; Decreto Legislativo n. 61 del 18 maggio 2018 (Marittimi) Law 23 July 1991, no. 223, Rules on the Wage Guarantee Fund, redundancies, unemployment benefits, enforcement of European directives, job placement, and other labour market provisions; Legislative Decree 8 April 2004, no. 110, Modification and integrations to Law 23 July 1993, no. 223, concerning collective dismissals; Legislative Decree n. 149 14/09/2015 Provisions for the rationalisation and simplification of inspection work and social legislation, in implementation of the law of 10 December 2014, n. 183; Legislative Decree no.61 of 18 May 2018 (seafarers)
Spain: Definition of collective dismissal Spain Definition of collective dismissal Estatuto de los Trabajadores (ET); Ley 3/2012, de 6 de julio, de medidas urgentes para la reforma del mercado laboral; Real Decreto 11/2013, de 2 de agosto, para la protección de los trabajadores a tiempo parcial y otras medidas urgentes en el orden económico y social Statute of Workers’ Rights; Law 3/2012 of 6 July on urgent measures to reform the labour market; Royal Decree law 11/2013 of 2 August, for the protection of part-time workers and other measures in the economic and social field
Latvia: Definition of collective dismissal Latvia Definition of collective dismissal Darba likums Labour law
Finland: Definition of collective dismissal Finland Definition of collective dismissal Laki yhteistoiminnasta yrityksissä (334/2007), Laki yhteistoiminnasta suomalaisissa ja yhteisönlaajuisissa yritysryhmissä (335/2007), Laki yhteistoiminnasta valtion virastoissa ja laitoksissa (1233/2013), Laki työnantajan ja henkilöstön välisestä yhteistoiminnasta kunnissa (449/2007) Act on Cooperation within Undertakings (334/2007), Act on Cooperation within Finnish and Community-wide Groups of Undertakings (335/2007), Act on Cooperation within Government Agencies and Institutions (1233/2013), Act on Cooperation […] within Municipalities (449/2007)
Norway: Definition of collective dismissal Norway Definition of collective dismissal Arbeidsmiljøloven; Arbeidsmarkedsloven Working Environment Act; Labour Market Act
Estonia: Definition of collective dismissal Estonia Definition of collective dismissal Töölepingu seadus Employment Contracts Act
Poland: Definition of collective dismissal Poland Definition of collective dismissal Ustawa z dnia 13.03.2003 r. o szczególnych zasadach rozwiązywania z pracownikami stosunków pracy z przyczyn niedotyczących pracowników Act of 13.03.2003 on special principles of termination of employment contracts with employees for reasons not related to employees - 'Collective Dismissals Act'