- Access to finance
- Income support for workers
Provision of training
The instrument is available to people who are registered as unemployed or seeking work.
The Poviat Labour Office (Powiatowy Urząd Pracy, PUP) can finance training related to improving 'soft' or 'hard' skills for unemployed people or those looking for work if they have already been given notice, or their employer is in the process of bankruptcy or closure of the company. The public employment services can also finance training for employees or self-employed over 45 . These provisions are based on articles 40-43 of the Act of 20 April 2004 on employment promotion and labour market institutions. Neither the trade unions nor the employer organisations play any role here.
When an unemployed person is directed to training, he or she has a right to a special training benefit which corresponds to 120% of unemployment benefits. Public employment services can also give loans to finance training (maximum of 400% of average wage), which should be paid back within during the 18 months after the training.
Training organised by public employment services should last no more than six months (in particular situations, up to 12 months). When an unemployed person is without any qualification, training can last 12 months (in particular situations, up to 24 months).
The public employment services can also finance training organised by other institutions if the unemployed people (or other such as employees over 45) justify their choice for a specific training (maximum 300% of average wage).
The public employment services can also pay for postgraduate studies (maximum 300% of average wage).
- Appointment to a training programme;
- Financing of postgraduate studies;
- Loans for financing the training costs; and
- Financing exams or certification costs.
All implemented activities should be consistent with an earlier analysis of the labour market challenges at the local level.
- National funds
- European funds
- European Funds (ESF)
Legal framework; funding
Supervision/monitoring of activities
Public employment services
Implementation of programmes
Employer or employee organisations
Implementation of training (training providers, educational institutions); European Social Fund (ESF) funding
The measure is only monitored at local level. Pursuant to article 84 of the Regulation of the Minister of Labour and Social Policy of 14 May 2014 on detailed conditions of implementation and the mode of conducting labour market services, the public employment service (Powiatowy Urząd Pracy) analyses the effectiveness and efficiency of the organisation of training. Example of such report is PES Rybnik.
No monitoring takes place at national level. Only sporadic assessments are conducted at that level, above all by the Supreme Audit Office (NIK).
The aggregate data from the report presented in 2015 showed that internships, trainings, public works or interventions have little to contribute to the activation of the unemployed. The Ministry of Labour and Social Policy does not have reliable knowledge about the effects of activation. The auditors calculated that, for example, the ministerial index of effectiveness of training and internships overstates their effectiveness by almost 1/3 (from about 17 to 27%). This is due to the fact that the Syriusz IT system used by the Ministry of Labour takes into account all persons who have been unregistered from the unemployment register, and therefore not only those who have found a permanent job but also those who have only been qualified to take part in one of the activation programmes.
According to the NIK report presented in 2019, in the years 2014–2017, labour offices throughout Poland most often used activation forms for the unemployed that showed the highest employment effectiveness, understood as remaining in employment for at least 30 days within three months of completing activation, i.e. internships (854,800 activated people), training (510,800 activated people), intervention works (209,700 activated people) and business subsidies (183,000 activated people).
The method of calculating employment effectiveness by PUPs did not, however, take into account the permanence of employment for more than three months. The analysis carried out by the Supreme Audit Office in 21 poviat labor offices showed that in the long term this effectiveness decreased significantly. Two years after the start of the activation period, the participation in public works proved to be the least effective (employment durability decreased from 76.5%, calculated by PUPs after three months, to 9.5% after two years) and referral for internships (from 77.6% to 26.7%). On the other hand, the durability of employment in the case of business subsidies changed slightly (from 93.4% to 86.9%).
Also there have been established so-called labour market observatories at some voivodship labour offices (for example: Mazowieckie, Pomeranian, or Łódź). In 2019, the Mazowieckie Labour Market Observatory developed an analysis of the competencies necessary for the voivodship labour market (Competences of the future on the Masovian labor market in the perspective up to 2040). The analysis identified definitely more competences for which demand as a result of changes should increase, than those for which the demand may decrease. This means that the requirements for future employees will probably be even higher than they currently are.
The measure responds to the identified needs of the local labour market. It should be based on cooperation between different partners, including employers, the Poviat Labour Office, local governments, social partners and educational institutions.
The implementation of this measure mainly depends on funds within the Labour Fund (EFS funds are only a supplement). This is set every year in the budget act. The funds are limited because the decisive vote is held by the Ministry of Finance, and the social partners, who often expect greater use of these funds, are only consulted on this matter. Many Poviat Labour Offices are limited in terms of the kind of activities they can carry out.