Industrial relations in the public sector – Slovenia

  • Observatory: EurWORK
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  • Published on: 10 december 2008



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This report presents an overview of industrial relations in the central government and public sector in Slovenia.

1. Structure of the public sector in your country

The definition of the public sector commonly accepted and used in your country. What are the different sectors covered (e.g. central government, local government, health sector, education, others)?

According to the Civil Servants Act (Zakon o javnih uslužbencih, ZJU, 2002) and the Public Sector Wage System Act (Zakon o sistemu plač v javnem sektorju, ZSPJS, 2005), the public sector in Slovenia comprises of:

- state bodies and self-governing local communities,

- public agencies, public funds, public institutes and public commercial institutes,

- other persons under public law that are indirect users of the national budget or local authority budgets.

Public enterprises and companies in which the state or local authority holds a majority stake or a predominant influence are not regarded as a part of the public sector in the above mentioned laws and are regarding the employment, wage determination and collective bargaining in the same position as commercial enterprises and companies.

The definition of the central government sector commonly accepted and used in your country. What are the different sectors covered?

The Government of the RS and the Prime Minister, Ministries, Governmental Directorates and Offices and Administry units.

The following data:

Table 1. Employment and population
Year Central government Public sector* Total Employees (all economy) Total Population
Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women

2003

19,670

13,859

65,000

131,000

488,000

409,000

976,802

1,019,631

2004

20,400

14,250

72,000

137,000

511,000

434,000

977,052

1,020,538

2005

20,457

14,310

72,000

148,000

448,078

357,559

981,465

1,021,893

*Data on NACE categories L - O

Source: Statistical office of RS (SORS)

Table 2. Central government employment
Year Open-ended of which part-time Fixed-term of which part-time
Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women

2003

               

2004

               

2005

               

Please clarify whether central government employment includes: a) school teachers; b) NHS employees; c) armed forces and police; other non-ministerial employees. If data include these groups of employees, please indicate their numbers (or estimated share).

As there are no data available for the original table 2, we provide the available data in the below table.

Table 2. Central government employment
Year Open-ended Fixed-term

2003

32,846

1,029*

2004

29,976

4,674

2005

29,976 (15,666 men and 14,310 women)

4,789

Source: Ministry for Public Administration: Human resources reports, 2004 and 2005

* data for 2003 is not comparable with data for 2004 and 2005 as it does not comprise fixed term employment on projects and other form of employment that presented 3,598 employees in 2004 and 3,681 employees in 2005.

Data in table 2 includes also armed forces and police, but it does not include school teachers, NHS employees and other non-ministerial employees. In 2003 there were 9,074 employees in the Police and 6,376 employees in the Slovene Army. In 2004 there were 9,630 employees in the Police and 6,945 employees in the Slovene Army. In 2005 there were 9,277 employees in the Police and 7,313 employees in the Slovene Army. In 2005 there were 2,563 men and 1,111 women employed on open-ended contracts in the Slovene Army. In 2005 there were 6,992 men and 2,055 women employed on open-ended contracts in the Police. In the 2005 there were 3,639 employees on fixed-term contracts in the Slovene Army and 230 employees in the Police. There is no data available on fixed term and open-ended employment nor gender disaggregated data other than given in the table.

Please indicate whether fixed-term employment and part-time work are typical of certain organisational areas in the central government sector (for instance, top job positions rather than lower-level occupations) or group of workers (such as employees approaching retirement, new recruits, women, technicians, and the like)

Part time work is not frequently used in Slovenia in the public and also not in the private sector.

According to the SORS, the share of persons in employment with part time work in 2005 was 9.0 %. (7.2 % for men and 11.1 % for women). Fixed term employment (that is more present among non-standard forms of employment in Slovenia and it presents a major part of new employments every year e.g 75% of new employments in 2005) is typical for certain groups of employees in the central government sector.

The Civil Servants Act ( Zakon o javnih uslužbencih, ZJU) defines some categories of employees that concludes fixed -term employment contracts: jobs in cabinet, replacement of a public officer, project related professional work, probationers, general directors, general secretaries, and heads and presidents of offices and bodies, administry units, secretary of municipality; jobs connected to a change in scope of work. According to the Act on Defence and the Civil Servants Act, soldiers in the Headquarters of the Slovene Army and police officers are employed on fixed-term contracts lasting 5 years. The human resource report of the Ministry for Public Administration (Ministrstvo za javno upravo, MJU) states, that the new regulations on employment of police officers and soldiers on 5 years contract are the main reason for the increase of the fixed-term employment in the central government.

Please indicate the presence and quantitative relevance of non-standard employment relationships in the central government sector, and especially of temporary agency work and service contracts with individuals or other non-standard contractual relationships that are important in your country.

In the human resource reports on the central government, other non-standard employment such as temporary agency work and service contracts are not mentioned and we estimate that presence and relevance of these is low in the central government sector.

2. Employment regulation

Public sector vs. private sector.

Do (certain) public sector employees enjoy special status compared with private sector employees?

The trend of changes in regulation of employment of public sector employees is directed into the equalisation of their status with the status of employees in the private sector. The equalisation of the status of both groups of employees in terms of dismissals with cause, due to incompetence or due to business reasons i.e. relaxation of job protection in the public sector was the rationale for amendements to the Civil Servants Act in 2005.

According to the representative of the Government RS, the status of public sector employees that is regulated by the Civil Servants Act is still different than the status of private sector employees regarding several areas (such as system of promotions, firing procedures, education, reorganisation).

According to the representative of the Trade Union of State and Societal Bodies of Slovenia (Sindikat državnih in družbenih organov Slovenije, SDDO) (SI0208104F) is in certain aspects better and more secure than that of employees in the commercial sector. Employees in the public sector are not effected by the market oscilations, their jobs are more secure because of the procedures of reorganisation and reallocations.

Do all public sector employees have the same status or are there differences between different groups of employees, as, for instance, between civil servants, clerical employees and workers?

The Civil Servants Act differentiates between civil servants, officials who perform support work, and professional technical public employees. There are specific regulations concerning the status of civil servants (regarding e.g. hiring – public tenders, political neutrality, career and promotions, reallocations, public transparency of work, rights and responsibilities, grants, appointments, education and training). There are also specific regulations concerning employees in the Army and the Police that are defined in sectoral laws.

If public sector employees enjoy special status(es), please specify:

The distinctive features of (each) public sector employment status, highlighting the main differences with the status of private sector employees (and, if relevant, among the various public sector statuses). In particular, indicate whether such differences involve the rights: i) of association; ii) to bargaining collectively; iii) to strike.

The first 21 articles of the Civil Servants Act are common for all public sector employees and in that part are defined the rights of public sector employees on association, collective bargaining and strike. The realisation of the right to strike and its limitation is legally defined due to securing public interest. According to the Act on strike (Zakon o stavki), the right on strike in organisations of the special public interest could be realised if the minimal working activity that guaranties safety of people and property and meeting international responsibilities are secured.

The requirements that must be fulfilled to gain (each) such special status(es): i) pass a public examination; ii) achieve a certain tenure in the position; c) in terms of nationality; d) other specific conditions.

Appointments of civil servants in different statuses are conditioned with the educational attainement, tenure, lack of criminal record, proficiency examination, active knowledge of official language(s).

Central government. Please indicate whether and how this special employment status regulation applies to central government employees.Please fill in the following table:

Table 3. Status of central government employees
Year Total employees Status A (please replace by the name of the status) Status B (please replace by the name of the status) Status C (please replace by the name of the status)
Men Women Men Women Men Women

2003

             

2004

             

2005

             

N.B.: add further columns if required

It was not possible to obtain data needed for the table 3.

Please indicate the elements of the employment relationship of central government employees which are regulated by:

Specific legislation.

The Civil Servants Act regulates the following elements of the employment relationship of central government employees (that are the same for all employees in public sector): hiring and employment contract, fixed-term work, job positions, titles and functions, rights and responsibilities, education and training, probationary work, work evaluation, promotions, disciplinary and damage responsibilities, incompetence evaluation, reallocations, termination of employment contract, proficiency examination, civil servants authorities.

Collective bargaining

The draft of the Collective Agreement for Public Sector defines the following elements: the basic wage, wage classes, adjustment of wages, annual leave bonus, criteria for bonuses, criteria for defining hard working conditions, catalogue of job positions and titles.

In your answer, please refer specifically to elements such as recruitment procedures, pay (see also below), working time, work organisation, job security and employment protections, social security.

Please, briefly illustrate whether and how reform of employment regulation in the central government sector since the 1990s has affected:

The status of workers.The balance between legislation and collective bargaining in regulating the various dimensions of the employment relationships.Other relevant industrial relations dimensions, such as representation, conflict and its regulation.

According to the representative of the SDDO, there were many changes in the regulation of public sector employment since 1990. From approximately 9000 employees at the beginning of 90s, their number increased to approximately 34.000. In that period a number of regulations was passed and the position of employees in the central government has been improved. The Civil Servants Act regulates even social partnership that is unique in Slovene legislation (the law defines the responsibilities of the ministries and the Government in relation to employees and trade unions). Since 1990 indexation of wages exists and there is a regular collective bargaining going on. There are more conflicts on the individual level (regarding e.g. employees` rights, appointments, disciplinary procedures). In the mentioned period more than 150 cases of individual conflicts were filled to the Labour and Social Court.

Representative of the governmental Institute for macroeconomic analysis and development (IMAD) (Urad za makroekonomske analize in razvoj, UMAR) also estimates that legislative changes since early nineties has been improving working and employment conditions in the central government and that the last reform changed Civil Servants Act in direction of equalisation with private sector. The IMAD representative estimates that the regulation of employment in central government is more influenced by the legislation than collective bargaining as there has been no collective agreement concluded for the public sector yet.

Please, briefly illustrate whether and how reorganisation and restructuring in the central government sector since the 1990s, for instance through the establishment of special agencies or the separation of specific bodies and offices, has affected:

The status of significant groups of workers.The balance between legislation and collective bargaining in regulating the various dimensions of the employment relationships.Other relevant industrial relations dimensions, such as representation, conflict and its regulation.

Both representatives of IMAD and SDDO estimate that the changes and reorganisations in the central government were numerous (every four years and changes in some areas even more often). Reorganisations caused increase in the number of governmental agencies that are independent (while some used to be parts of ministries) and have different responsibilities and tasks. While IMAD representative estimates that majority of employees that were previously under the rigid employment system of central government just changed position and were transferred in other bodies with less rigid labour regulation (so they were just relocated and a few lost their jobs). The representative of the SDDO thinks that reorganisations caused some dismissals as well (he mentioned the case of Agency of the Republic of Slovenia for Payments (Agencija za plačilni promet, APP) that was closed down five years ago and more than a thousand employees lost their jobs).

3. Pay levels and determination

Please indicate:

The presence and relevance of collective bargaining on pay in the central government sector.

In 2003 the government reviewed the draft Collective Agreement for the Public Sector and assessed that the document was a good basis for the launch of negotiations with trade unions in the sector as it dealted integrally with wages in the sector and ultimately aimed at differentiating the individuals' work achievements and motivating public employees to work harder. The draft envisaged all-year assessment of performance, payable twice a year, based on above-average results. The tariff part determined the basic wage, target performance and bonuses, as well as individual wage classes corresponding to seniority of posts. The agreement was drafted as stipulated in the Public Sector Wage System Act, which was adopted after long lasting negotiations between trade unions and the government. The negotiations over the Collective Agreement for the Public Sector are still going on.

The Public Sector Wage System Act (Zakon o sistemu plač v javnem sektorju, ZSPJU) came into force in July 2005. As several provisions of the law require implementation through collective agreements, the law makes colective agreements compulsory in the public sector, what has been a subject of discussion because of collision with the principle of the voluntary collective bargaining (SI0212101F).

It is the practice that the government discusses pay policy in the public sector in each budget period with public sector trade unions. In February 2006 the governement presented the proposal of the Agreement on Pay Increases and Annual Leave Bonuses for 2006-2009 and the agreement on that was reached the with trade unions.

The number and scope of bargaining units on pay within the central government sector.

The bargaining unit on pay consists of representatives of trade unions for public sector and government representatives (for wage system is responsible representative of the Ministry for Public Administration, in special cases also representative of the Ministry for Internal Affaires). Public Sector Wage System Act envisages conclusion of Collective Agreement for Public Sector (Kolektivne pogodbe za javni sektor) and also conclusion of Collective Agreement for Central Government Sector (Kolektivne pogodbe za državno upravo). The only collective agreement for the public sector that is valid at the moment is Collective Agreement for Non-commercial Activities (Kolektivna pogodba za negospodarstvo) from year 1991.Although the Public Sector Wage System Act is valid, it is still not implemented in practice, because this act envisages different wage system that is in use at the moment.The Public Sector Wage System Act also envisages adoption of different regulation acts for job classification.

Do minimum wage levels vary across the different bargaining units within the central government sector? Are there common minimum wage levels in the whole public sector?

No, in Slovenia the minimum wage is determined as an institute of guarantee of material and social status of employees as a lowest monthly payment for the full time work that an employee has to receive from an employer in RS and it is the same for all sectors of both public and private sector. From 1st August 2005 the minimum wage amounts to SIT 122,600 (EURO 510).

Is there a single job classification system for the whole central government sector?

The Public Sector Wage System Act introduces single job classification system, but it is not in practice yet as social partners still did not reach the agreement on the catalogue of positions and titles.According to the representative of the government, there is no single job classification system at the moment for the whole central government sector.

Representatives of the trade unions also confirmed that there are stil differences in job classifications in different sectors. The Public Sector Wage System Act defines that the wage changes introduced must not decrease the existing level of wages for any group of employees. The new wage act envisages a single job classification with 65-level pay scales and with ratio of the lowest and highest pay of no more that 1:10. Adjustments on wages are considered once a year.

Wage levels and wage increases in the central government and private sectors since 2000 (table 4). If there are great variations across bargaining units within the central government sector, please briefly illustrate such variations.

Table 4. Central government and private sector: wage levels and increases since 2000 (average)
Year Central government* Private sector
Level € Annual increase % Level € Annual increase %

2000

1,023,7

109,3

742,7

110,3

2001

1,166,6

114,0

823,9

110,9

2002**

1,254,6

107,6

901

109,4

2003

1,345,2

107,2

971,3

107,8

2004**

1,351,2

100,4

1,027,2

105,8

2005

1,394,5

103,2

1,082,5

105,4

* Data is available only for the whole public sector, but according to the representative of the Ministry for Public Administration there are no big differences among wages in central government and other parts of the public sector because of the same legislative basis applied.

**changes in methodology, increases include (promotion, harmonisation and performance)

Source: IMAD and own calculation in EURO

The amendments to the act on public sector wages, which increased the wages by 2% were passed in 2005 and allocated the equivalent of a 0.5% wage increase for a special budget item used for the elimination of imbalances between the different wage classes in the public sector. Wages of top civil servants were reduced in March 2006 in accordance with a decree on officials' wages, alongside the necessary tweaks to the Public Sector Wage System Act that should result in savings until 2009 amounting to SIT 1bn (EUR 4.2m). In June 2006 the Law on changes of the Public Sector Wage System Act was passed. It defines increases of wages based on quality and scope of work. The agreement on pay increases and annual leave bonuses for 2006-2009 envisages that out of 2.1 % wage increase 0.8 % will be used for wages and 1.3 % for the elimination of wage imbalances in the public sector in 2007.

According to the representative of the government there are no variations across bargaining units for wage levels and wage increases in central government.

The presence and relevance of variable performance-related pay in the central government sector. Please indicate whether variable pay is particularly relevant in certain bargaining units or organisational areas (for instance, top job positions, officers, or other occupations).

According to the representative of the government there exists variable performance-related pay in the central government sector, but the amount that is reserved for the performance-related pay presents only 2% of all amount for variable part. Increase in wages must not be higher than 20% of pay. Civil Servants Act defines variable performance-related pay specially for functionaries and for officers.This system is still in preparation phase.

Are there any form of “benchmarking” of wage dynamics in the central government sector with other public sectors or with the private sector? If yes, are industrial relations actors involved in such benchmarking activity?

According to the representative of the government comparison of wage levels between public sectors and the private sector will be adjusted with the new Public Sector Wage System Act, and these disparities should be eliminated by the year 2009.

4. Union Presence and density

Please provide information on:

Trade unions which are present in the various bargaining units of the central government sector, their number, affiliation, representational domain, membership, and the sectoral union density (data by gender). Please fill in the following table:

Table 5. Trade unions
Union Affiliation Representational domain (group of workers represented) Bargaining units where the trade union is present Membership* Sectoral union density
Women Men  

A Police Trade union of Slovenia (Policijski sindikat Slovenije, PSS)

Confederation of the trade unions of the public sector* (Konfederacija sindikatov javnega sektorja)

Employed in the Police

Bargaining unit of the representative trade unions of the public sector

1000 (20%)

4000 (80%)

70 – 75 %

B Trade union of customs officials of Slovenia (Sindikat carinikov Slovenije, SCS)

Independent, representative, a member of ROS DDO, which is member of

Confederation of Free Trade Unions (Zveza svobodnih sindikatov Slovenije, ZSSS)

Customs administration

Bargaining unit of the representative trade unions of the public sector

900 (6%)

600 (40%)

84%

C Trade Union of the Government Agency of Slovenia (Sindikat Vladne agencije Slovenije, SVAS)

Under Slovene Intelligence and Security agency

         

D Trade union of the Ministry of defence (Sindikat Ministrstva za obrambo, SMO)

Independent, a part of ROS DDO*** (a part of authority transferred to the SDDOS, Confederation of Free Trade Unions

Employed at the Ministry of Defence and in the Slovene Army

Bargaining unit of the representative trade unions of the public sector

800 (15%)

3200 (85%)

50 %

E Trade union of Slovene diplomats (Sindikat slovenskih diplomatov, SSD)

Associate member of the SDDO, member of the Confederation of Free Trade Unions

Diplomats, civil servants

Bargaining unit of the representative trade unions of the public sector

140 (70%)

60

(30%)

70 %

F Confederation 90 (Konfederacija sindikatov 90, KS-90)

KS-90

The Slovene Army, war pilots, meteorolists

Bargaining unit of the representative trade unions of the public sector

400 (15%)

2200 (85%)

25 %

G Trade union of state and societal bodies of Slovenia (Sindikat državnih in družbenh organov Slovenije, SDDO)

Confederation of Free Trade Unions (Zveza svobodnih sindikatov Slovenije, ZSSS)

Public administration and defence, compulsory social security

Bargaining unit of the representative trade unions of the public sector

(40%)

(do not want to reveal data)

(60%)

80 %

Total

-

-

-

     

* Confederation of the trade unions in public sector exists almost six months and wait for the authorisation of their representative status from the Ministry for Labour, Family and Social Affairs.

* * data on membership is approximate and estimated by trade unions themselves

*** Republic body of trade unions of state and societal bodies (Republiški odbor sindikatov državnih in družbenih organov Slovenije, ROS DDO). SDDO should be renamed in Trade union of public servants.

Please provide information on the diffusion within the central government sector of craft unions, professional unions, or unions which are not affiliated to peak associations.

There exist no such trade unions.

Are there any formal procedures or rules which aim to assess the representativeness of the various unions? If yes, please, briefly illustrate the content of such procedures or rules. Do these procedures or rules affect the access of the various unions to trade union prerogatives or to the bargaining table? If yes, please specify such effects and any possible limitations.

No, there are no rules/procedures specific for the public sector. The Law on Representativenes of Trade Unions (LRTU) (SI0210102F) stipulates which trade unions are representative: at the level of the company representative is a trade union that has membership of at least 15% of workers employed in the company; an association or confederation of trade unions is representative if it has membership of at least 10% of workers employed in the sector, activity or profession.

As the collective bargaining in accordance to the new legislation (Law on Collective Agreements) is a matter of free choice of parties of bargaining, the representativeness is not statutory demanded as a condition for collective bargaining.

5. Employer representation

Please provide information on:

Who does represent the central government at the bargaining table? Are there specific independent bodies, such as agencies, or negotiations are carried out under the responsibility of political actors, such as ministers?

Central government is represented in the collective bargaining by the governmental bargaining group that consists of representatives of all ministries, some governmental offices, agencies, the parliament and the representatives of associations of municipalities (currently there are 26 members of the bargaining group).

If negotiations are carried out by specific independent bodies, please indicate how they are organised. In particular, specify whether there are guidelines or other directives set by political actors and how the tasks of the independent bodies are carried out. For instance, negotiations have to follow specific stages?

There are no specific independent bodies that would carry out negotiations. The draft of the Collective Agreement for the Public Sector defines stages in the bargaining process. The process starts with one side presenting the proposal to the other side. Bargaining continues until the agreement is reached or one side rejects negotiations in a written form.

If negotiations are carried under the direct responsibility of political actors, please indicate how they are organised. For instance, do negotiations take place under the responsibility of a single ministry, for instance the Finance Ministry, or are they carried out by a delegation or in a different way?

The broader governmental bargaining group (see 5.1.) selects the core negotiation team consisting of several people that are responsible to the government (currently there are 6 members of the core negotiation team). According to the representative of the government in the negotiating process the governmental bargaining group is represented by one professional negotiator who is responsible to the Ministry of Public Administration.

Do collective agreements in the central government sector have to pass an ex-post “validation” procedure, for instance to certify their compliance with budget constraints? If present, please briefly illustrate such procedure and the consequences of failure to pass it.

No, there is no ex-post validation procedure. The decision of the bargaining unit that represents government is final.

6. Collective bargaining and conflict in central government

Please provide information on:

The structure of collective bargaining and, in particular, the number and scope of bargaining units, both at central (national) and decentralised (workplace and territorial) levels.

According to the representatives of the SDDO and the IMAD, the bargaining for the public sector is going on the national level only, mainly regarding wages and working conditions. Smaller bargaining harmonising groups in ministries or sectors (e.g. public administration, judicature, defence, tax authorities) are formed according to the needs. Bargaining over the wages in public sector is currently going on for more than four years (there were 212 adjustments and 92 times bargaining). The collective bargaining on the Collective Agreement for Public Sector that should unify the system of wages in the sector is currently going on.

Government of RS is responsible for interdepartmental harmonisation that is at the moment concerning the whole public sector and in the future it will concern also the collective agreement for central government.

The duration of agreements and the presence and content of peace obligations.

In accordance with the Law on Collective Agreements (Zakon o kolektivnih pogodbah, ZKP) collective agreements could be signed for unlimited or limited period of time and could be terminated by a consent of both parties or one side rescission of agreement.

Collective Agreement for Non-commercial Sector has been valid more than 15 years. There are also collective dispute resolution procedures that are not specific for the central government, but are defined in the Law on Collective Agreements for both public and private sector.

3. The main issues of collective bargaining by referring to the latest renewals.

According to the representative of the government the main issues of collective bargaining are connected to the wage system (funds for variable performance-related pay, wage allowances). At the moment there is bargaining going on that would enable the implementation of the Public Sector Wage System Act. In order to put new wage system in practice, some additional regulations must be adopted.

The SDDO representative confirmed that the main issue of collective bargaining is the unification and the tariff part of the new wage system. The system that is currently is use exists since 1996 and it is based on quotients and many bonuses. That should be simplified and replaced by wage classes. Currently the collective agreements for public sector, for central government and for valuation of jobs are in the bargaining procedure.

Levels and recent trends in conflict.

According to the representatives of the Government, there were no conflicts recently. Social partners (both representatives of trade unions and representatives of the Government) wish to eliminate disparities in wages for public sector as soon as possible and this will be concluded with agreement among social partners in 2009.

The presence and main features of forms of regulation of labour conflict and collective dispute resolution procedures. Please indicate whether such rules are specific to the central government sector, or apply to the whole public sector, or are general and cover both public and private sectors.

As it was mentioned before, the right on strike is restricted for some parts of the public sector; there are specifics for the police, judicature, defence and costumes authorities that are defined in respective legislation. For collective dispute resolution procedures see 6.2.

7. Commentary by the NC

Please:

Specify the main issues on the agenda of industrial relations in the central government sector in your country.

The most important question that has been at the agenda of the social partners for some years now is the wage system in the public sector.

Cover any further issues which are relevant in your country but have not been covered by previous questions.

There are no such issues that will demand special attention.

Provide your own comments on industrial relations in the central government sector in your country.

The public sector (and the central government within it) has been in the process of reforming in the past decade. The changes have been oriented towards reaching some international standards and equalisation of the position of employees in public and private sector. The role of social dialogue and influence of trade unions could be assessed as important and positive. Trade unions in the public sector organised themselves and by that unified their positions. It could be expected that the long lasting negotiations over the collective agreement for public sector will be concluded in the near future and that will enable implementation of the new wage system in the public sector. According to the trade union representatives, the position of employees in the central government did not deteriorate because of the ongoing reforms, while in some other parts of the public sector (e.g. health, education) the situation is different and trade union criticism is much stronger.

Aleksandra Kanjuo-Mrcela, OHRC

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