Minimum wages in Belgium exist at national and sectoral levels and are the outcome of collective bargaining. The national minimum wage typically lags behind sectoral minimum wages in Belgium, and policymakers have been concerned about the relative decrease in the national minimum wage compared with the national median wage, which was also noted during the preparation of the EU Directive on Adequate Minimum Wages.
On 31 August 2022, a new decree on minimum wages was published in Cyprus after a long and arduous process of negotiations and social dialogue. The ministerial decree, which came into effect on 1 January 2023, established a national minimum wage in Cyprus for the first time, a groundbreaking and controversial development that drew a multitude of reactions from social partners on both sides of industry.
Italy has no minimum wage prescribed by law. Minimum wages are set through collective agreements at sectoral level, and the majority of employees in Italy are covered by a collective bargaining agreement in which wages are set. This article outlines the latest positions (2023) of the government and the parliament regarding the introduction of a statutory minimum wage.
The European Green Deal binds the European Union to becoming a climate-neutral territory by 2050. As part of this, the European Climate Law (June 2021) commits the EU to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by at least 55% (compared with 1990 levels) by 2030. To achieve this, a fundamental transformation of core production–consumption systems such as energy, mobility and food is necessary. Europe is in the process of rethinking and reshaping its development and economic policies, investing in research and technologies, and transforming Europeans’ understanding of progress and how to measure it.
EU:s omställning till en klimatneutral ekonomi kräver inget mindre än en ren industriell revolution. I denna rapport undersöks de socioekonomiska konsekvenser som sådana grundläggande förändringar kan tänkas få för olika europeiska regioner och befolkningsgrupper, i enlighet med en framsynsstrategi. Scenariofokuserat samarbete med intressenter och experter genomfördes för att bättre förstå den framväxande ekonomiska och sociala ojämlikheten på EU-nivå och regional nivå.
Som en reaktion på Rysslands krig mot Ukraina aktiverade EU sitt direktiv om tillfälligt skydd för personer som flydde från landet, vilket gjorde det möjligt för dem att bosätta sig i EU och få tillgång till grundläggande offentliga tjänster och arbetsmarknaden. Våren 2023 hade över 4,5 miljoner människor använt sig av direktivet om tillfälligt skydd eller liknande nationella skyddssystem i EU. Under 2022 genomförde Europeiska unionens byrå för grundläggande rättigheter en webbundersökning bland personer som fördrivits från Ukraina.
Bostäder till oöverkomliga priser är ett stort bekymmer i EU. Det leder till hemlöshet, otrygga bostadsförhållanden, ekonomiska påfrestningar och undermåliga bostäder. Det är också ett hinder för unga människor när det gäller att flytta hemifrån. Dessa problem påverkar människors hälsa och välbefinnande, införlivar ojämlika levnadsvillkor och möjligheter samt leder till hälso- och sjukvårdskostnader, minskad produktivitet och miljöskador. Privata hyresgäster har drabbats av särskilt stora ökningar av sina bostadskostnader, och ägare med bolån riskerar att drabbas av räntehöjningar.
Begreppet hybridarbete blev allmänt känt i samband med den snabba ökningen av distansarbete under covid-19-pandemin, när företag och anställda började diskutera hur arbetet skulle organiseras efter pandemin. Det har i allt större utsträckning använts för att hänvisa till situationer där arbete (som kan utföras på distans) utförs från två platser: den vanliga arbetsplatsen (vanligtvis arbetsgivarens lokaler) och hemmet (vilket var fallet under pandemin), eller andra platser. Begreppet är dock fortfarande otydligt och tillskrivs flera olika betydelser.
The rise of the platform economy during the last decade is one of the main disrupting forces for European labour markets. While standard employment remains the norm, platforms are expanding their reach and diversifying into novel business models. In doing so, they are also attracting an increasing number of women. This policy brief investigates why women are joining the platform economy and how the motivations to perform work on platforms differ between genders.
Europe Day is a celebration of unity, solidarity and harmony. While we may not have had much to celebrate this past year, one thing we can be proud of is how Europe has come together in the face of large-scale challenges and threats, showing that solidarity is the key to resilience and resolve.
The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This publication series include the ERM reports, as well as blogs, articles and working papers on restructuring-related events in the EU27 and Norway.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
The report maps trends in income inequality and examines the situation of the middle classes in the EU during 2020, the year most associated with the COVID-19 lockdowns. It charts developments in the size and composition of middle-class households across countries, identifies those that suffered disproportionately in 2020. Taking a longer lens, the report describes the evolution of income inequalities over the last 15 years, comparing the Great Recession (2007–2009) with the COVID-19 pandemic, and outlines the trends both between and within Member States.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the chemical sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound’s study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the chemical sector in the EU Member States.
This report explores the implications of the right of all EU citizens to live independently. It investigates the barriers faced by people who wish to live independently, and the situation of people at risk of living in institutional settings. It maps the various measures taken by EU Member States to foster independent living and autonomy. The report also includes policy pointers to support future decision-makers and provides a review of lessons learned from the COVID-19 pandemic.