27 Mart 1999
Discussions on "new forms of work organisation" have a long history in Germany. First attempts to introduce them can be found as early as the 1920s, when the German automobile producer Daimler-Benz- in particular - conducted first experiments with an early form of group work. A broader discussion on the negative consequences of "Tayloristic" mass production started in the early 1970s when the German trade unions launched a broad political campaign for a "humanisation of work" (Humanisierung der Arbeit) and demanded a substantial improvement of working life. Since that time, many companies have seen growing problems with labour productivity, work discipline and absenteeism, and there has also been an interest on the employers' side in improving the quality of work. Finally, the German government created a framework programme on "humanisation of work" which promoted various projects on the improvement of working conditions and the introduction of new forms of work organisation.
27 Mart 1999
On 24 February 1999 the German Federation of Trade Unions (Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund, DGB) published a paper entitled /Alliance for jobs and European employment pact: macroeconomic framework conditions in Germany and Europe/ (Bündnis für Arbeit und Europäischer Beschäftigungspakt: die makroökonomischen Rahmenbedingungen in Deutschland und Europa , in /Informationen zur Wirtschafts- und Strukturpolitik/ 1/1999, 24 February 1999) which includes an analysis of the 1999 /Annual Economic Report/ from the European Commission. In the document, DGB sharply rejects the Commission's recommendations for further wage restraint.  http://www.dgb.de/idaten/wipo1-99.doc
27 Şubat 1999
In recent years, Germany has seen a continuing process of decentralisation of collective bargaining through the increased introduction of "opening clauses" in branch-level agreements, which to a certain extent allow companies to diverge from collectively agreed standards (DE9709229F ). A recent study carried out by the Institute for Economic and Social Research (Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaftliches Institut, WSI) has now found that a majority of members of (private sector) works councils and (public sector) staff councillor take a rather sceptical view of this development. According to the data recently published from the representative /WSI works and staff council survey 1997/8/, about 37% of works councillors and 22% of staff councillors see the decentralisation of collective bargaining as "negative", while another 40% of works councillors and 43% of staff councillors see it as "ambiguous - see the table below".  www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined-industrial-relations-working-conditions/opening-clauses-increase-in-branch-level-collective-agreements
27 Şubat 1999
In October 1997 the Mining, Chemicals and Energy Union (Industriegewerkschaft Bergbau, Chemie, Energie, IG BCE) was founded as a result of a merger of the mining, chemicals and leather workers' trade unions (DE9710233F ). Since then, the new IG BCE union has concluded branch-level collective agreements with 22 different employers' associations representing industries such as chemicals, rubber, paper, glass, mining, energy, leather and shoemaking. In total, these industries cover about 1.2 million employees.  www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined-industrial-relations/a-wave-of-trade-union-mergers
27 Ocak 1999
On 19 December 1998, a new law on "corrections in social security and the safeguarding of employee rights" (Gesetz zu Korrekturen in der Sozialversicherung und zur Sicherung der Arbeitnehmerrechte) was adopted by the new "red-green" government (DE9811281F ), which thus revoked some of the most controversial social changes made by the former conservative-liberal coalition (DE9702202F ). As far as labour law is concerned the new law, which came into effect on 1 January 1999, contains new provisions in the following areas.  www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined-social-policies/the-significance-of-the-new-red-green-government-for-german-industrial-relations  www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined/bargaining-in-1996-from-the-employment-alliance-to-the-sick-pay-dispute
27 Ocak 1999
In January 1999 the Federal Employment Service (Bundesanstalt für Arbeit, BfA) announced that about 1.83 billion paid overtime hours were worked in Germany in 1998. Arithmetically, this amount of overtime would be equivalent to 1.2 million jobs.
27 Ocak 1999
In recent years Germany has seen a continued erosion of its system of branch-level collective agreements (DE9802248F ). According to figures produced by the Institute for Employment Research (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt und Berufsforschung, IAB) in 1997, 49.0% (1995: 53.4%) of all west German private sector companies, employing 65.3% (1995: 72.2%) of private sector workers, were covered by branch-level collective agreements. The equivalent figures for eastern Germany were 25.7% of private companies, employing 43.9% of workers. In addition, it is reported that a growing number of companies which legally fall under the coverage of a collective agreements, in reality do not fulfil all collectively agreed standards. Research from the Institute for Economic and Social Research (Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaftliches Institut, WSI) found that in 1997/8 about 15.6% of west German and 29.8% of east German companies with works councils contravened valid collective agreements. In western Germany most offences involved agreed working time arrangements while in eastern Germany the highest number of offences involved agreed basic wages and salaries, as the table below indicates.  www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/industrial-relations-undefined-working-conditions-business/creeping-erosion-of-branch-level-bargaining-a-workplace-perspective
27 Aralık 1998
On 1 December 1998, the Mining, Chemicals and Energy Union (Industriegewerkschaft Bergbau, Chemie, Energie, IG BCE) and the employers' association for the east German chemical industry (Arbeitgeberverband Nordostchemie) signed new collective agreements for the 32,000 or so employees in the sector. The agreements, which will run until 30 June 2000, provide for a two-stage wage increase: from 1 January 1999, wages and salaries will increase by 3.7%; and from 1 January 2000, they will rise by 2.3%. Furthermore, all employees will receive a flat-rate payment of DEM 60 per month in respect of November and December 1998. According to IG BCE, the overall pay increase for the whole term is equivalent to 6.1%.
27 Aralık 1998
Following the election of a Social Democrat-led red-green government in September 1998 (DE9811281F ), a small circle of leading representatives of the government, trade unions and employers' associations (see annex below for details of the participants) met officially for the first time in December for joint talks. The parties agreed to establish a new national "alliance for jobs" (Bündnis für Arbeit), taking the form of a permanent tripartite body. The results of the meeting were set out on 7 December in a joint declaration of the alliance for jobs, vocational training and competitiveness  (Gemeinsame Erklärung des Bündnisses für Arbeit, Ausbildung und Wettbewerbsfähigkeit), which describes the parties' common goals and contains concrete plans on how to organise the further work of the tripartite alliance.  www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined-social-policies/the-significance-of-the-new-red-green-government-for-german-industrial-relations  http://www.bundesregierung.de/01/0101/02532/index.html
27 Aralık 1998
According to the Federal Statistical Office (Statistisches Bundesamt), German GDP rose by 2.8% in real terms in 1998, following a 2.2% increase in 1997. In 1998, GDP rose by 2.9% in the former territory of the Federal Republic, while it increased by 2.1% in the new Länder(federal states) and east Berlin. The government deficit (DEM 84.2 billion) was smaller than in 1997 (DEM 101.5 billion). At 2.2% (2.1%, according to the EU definition), the deficit ratio thus moved further below the reference value defined in the Maastricht Treaty (3% of GDP). Inflation, as measured by the consumer prices index, amounted to 0.9 % in 1998. According to the Federal Labour Office (Bundesanstalt für Arbeit), unemployment averaged 11.1% of the civilian labour force in 1998, compared with 11.4% in 1997. The figures for west and east Germany were 9.3% and 18.2% respectively.