Browse publications

Latest publications

  • Article
    27 Haziran 1997

    Entrusted with facilitating partnership between employers, employees and
    unions, a National Centre for Partnership was formally established on 15 July
    1997, meeting a government commitment in Ireland's three-year economic and
    social pact, /Partnership 2000/ (IE9702103F [1]).The Centre's activities will
    be directed towards facilitating trust and partnership between employers,
    employees and unions and, in this regard, it will seek to facilitate
    appropriate agreed local arrangements rather than to prescribe particular
    partnership mechanisms.


  • Article
    27 Haziran 1997

    Spanish trade unions and employers' organisations recently agreed on a major
    labour market reform. The three objectives of the "April agreements" of 1997
    are to reduce the instability of the labour market, to promote collective
    bargaining, and to plug the gaps in sectoral regulation that were left
    following the final repeal of the Labour Ordinances.

  • Article
    27 Haziran 1997

    Over the last 10 or so years, the Dutch labour market has been characterised
    by increasing flexibility and fragmentation. There is greater variety and
    flexibility with respect to working time, pay, job descriptions, the location
    of work and the term and type of employment contracts. Part-time work has,
    for example, become very popular in the Netherlands. More than one in every
    three Dutch employees (mainly women) has a part-time job, in contrast to an
    average of one in seven for the EU as a whole. There are also various types
    of contract flexibility, such as temporary work, freelance work, on-call
    employment, homeworking and teleworking. Whilst the percentage of flexible
    employment contracts stood at 7.9% of the working population in 1987, by 1995
    it had increased to 10% (Arbeidsverkenning 1987/94. CBS (Central Statistics
    Bureau) (1995)). Nowhere else in Europe does temporary work (through private
    temporary employment agencies) flourish as it does in the Netherlands.
    Temporary workers constitute about 3% of the total available labour supply.

  • Article
    27 Haziran 1997

    The demonstration for jobs originally organised by the European Trade Union
    Confederation for 28 May 1997, actually took place in France on 10 June, due
    to the timing of the general election.

  • Article
    27 Haziran 1997

    A June 1997 decision by the Supreme Court of Appeal in Greece, affecting
    mainly public servants, imposes new conditions on the provision of family
    benefits, which until now had been granted to only one of the marriage

  • Article
    27 Haziran 1997

    Compulsory competitive tendering (CCT) was one of the key privatisation
    measures introduced into the public sector by the Conservative governments of
    1979-97, coming into effect 17 years ago for "blue-collar" services and four
    years ago for "white-collar" services. The argument behind it was that
    greater competition would induce greater efficiency and hence savings in
    public expenditure. The Labour Government, however, believes that compulsion
    in itself is not the best method and should instead be replaced by a promise
    to provide "best value" for money.

  • Article
    27 Haziran 1997

    On 28 May 1997, new collective agreements were concluded for the 460,000 or
    so employees in west German banking. The signatories were the commerce,
    banking and insurance workers' trade union HBV (Gewerkschaft Handel, Banken
    und Versicherungen) and the white-collar workers' union DAG (Deutsche
    Angestellten-Gewerkschaft) on one side, and the employers' association for
    private banking (Arbeitgeberverband des privaten Bankgewerbes) and the
    collective bargaining community for public banks (Tarifgemeinschaft
    öffentlicher Banken) on the other.

  • Article
    27 Haziran 1997

    The results of the latest collective bargaining round at company level in
    industry are emerging. An estimate from the Confederation of Danish
    Industries (DI) shows an average increase in pay of 1.7%, or between DKK 1.75
    and DKK 2.00 per hour. The increase is higher than in 1996, when bargaining
    at company level produced an increase of between DKK 1.50 and DKK 1.75 per

  • Article
    27 Haziran 1997

    The June 1996 Alitalia collective agreement was reached after two years of
    difficult bargaining, and is intended to restructure the company, which is
    beset by severe financial problems. This restructuring involves a reduction
    of labour costs in exchange for the setting-up of a fund for the purchase of
    shares set aside for the company's employees. This fund will be created when
    the European Commission has authorised the ITL 2,800 billion increase in
    capital envisaged by the restructuring plan. One year on from the renewal of
    the national contract, the participatory bargaining model envisaged by the
    Alitalia agreement may be considered of key importance both for improving the
    competitive position of this company, and regulating industrial relations in
    the transport sector.

  • CAR
    27 Haziran 1997

    /Combating racial discrimination and xenophobia is an issue which has become
    increasingly prominent on the European Union agenda in recent years. Since
    the mid-1980s, a rising tide of concern with the problem can be perceived in
    various declarations and resolutions by Community institutions, and notably
    in the inclusion of the issue of racial discrimination in the 1989 "Social
    Charter". The past two years, especially, have seen significant developments,
    many of which are of direct relevance to employment and industrial


  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications