Publications

Browse publications

Latest publications

  • Article
    27 Mayıs 1997

    During the fourth bargaining round for its 90,000 employees, the German car
    producer Volkswagen AG announced the creation of several hundred new jobs.
    According to an agreement between management and the IG Metall trade union,
    the newly hired employees will be employed exclusively on a temporary basis
    and will de facto be remunerated below the level of the company agreements.
    Although being hired on the terms of the current company agreements, the
    newly hired employees will not be eligible for the compensatory extra pay
    component which was agreed when Volkswagen established the four-day working
    week in 1994, and thus they will be paid 10% less than core employees.
    According to the agreement, details will be fixed by the social partners at
    establishment level. During the negotiations, the IG Metall rejected
    Volkswagen's plans to pay the newly hired employees according to the
    branch-level metalworking agreement. The compensation of the new temporary
    staff will still be around 10% higher than the pay other employees receive on
    the basis of the current branch-level metalworking agreement.

  • Article
    27 Mayıs 1997

    In its recently published opinion on the conclusion of the Intergovernmental
    Conference (IGC), the Union of Industrial and Employers' Confederations of
    Europe (UNICE) underlines the need for the negotiating parties to "place a
    strengthening of Europe's competitiveness at the heart of the (new) Treaty,
    since promotion of competitiveness is the sine qua non to increase
    employment". The promotion of employment can, according to UNICE, never be
    treated in isolation. While European employers have repeatedly pronounced
    themselves in favour of the Essen employment strategy, they are keen to
    underline that responsibility for employment policy must continue to lie
    primarily with the member states.

  • Article
    27 Mayıs 1997

    Part-time work is an expression of the flexible organisation of working time.
    Although it is often quoted as a "new" form of employment, its practice has a
    long history in Greece. However, its legal framework has been moulded by the
    special provisions of the so-called Law on Development of 1990 (Law
    1892/1990, articles 37-9), which regulated for the first time the rights of
    workers employed on part-time contracts.

  • Article
    27 Mayıs 1997

    Over 1995-7, certain collective agreements in Spain have allowed employers to
    recruit workers at lower wages than workers in the same job grade who are
    already employed by the firm (the "dual pay scale"). Companies' objectives in
    reducing labour costs and workers' objectives in creating employment seem to
    be threatening the principles of solidarity and equality that have
    traditionally been maintained by the unions.

  • Article
    27 Mayıs 1997

    After 10 days of boycotts and two hours of strike action among the cleaners
    in the LKAB mine in northern Sweden, the Business Services Associations on
    the one hand and the Building Maintenance Workers' Union and the Union of
    Service and Communication on the other, accepted a draft collective agreement
    on wages from the mediators on 16 May 1997. The agreement covers 25,000
    employees in 600 companies. It means that the average monthly salary will be
    raised by SEK 370.

  • Article
    27 Mayıs 1997

    On 29 April 1997, the management and works council at Mohn GmbH, a subsidiary
    of one of Germany's biggest media corporations, Bertelsmann, signed a works
    agreement [1]- known as the "Pact for partnership 1997" - for the 1,700 or so
    employees at the Mohn printing works in Gütersloh.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/efemiredictionary/works-agreement-0

  • Article
    27 Mayıs 1997

    The negotiating teams representing the Union of Industrial and Employers'
    Confederations of Europe (UNICE), the European Trade Union Confederation
    (ETUC) and the European Centre of Enterprises with Public Participation and
    of Enterprises of General Economic Interest (CEEP) reached a draft framework
    agreement on part-time work in the evening of 14 May 1997.

  • Article
    27 Mayıs 1997

    On 13 January 1997, an agreement was signed on the introduction of new shop
    opening hours. Since 1990 shops have been allowed to open on a 24-hours a day
    basis in the wake of legislation to deregulate shop opening hours (article
    42, Law 1892/1990) in line with the then Conservative Government's policies
    on liberalisation. In late 1996, a number of businesses - members of the
    employers' organisation, SELPE- proceeded to introduce later working hours on
    Saturdays in Athens and its outer suburbs. In parallel, they took joint
    action with other bodies (including the Athens municipal authority and the
    Chamber of Commerce and Industry) to try to introduce Sunday shop opening. In
    response, the unions announced that they would fight this initiative and that
    they would demand amendments to Law 1892/1990.

  • Article
    27 Mayıs 1997

    Luxembourg's Economic and Social Council has recently responded to a
    government request for its opinion, with a view to reforming the Law of 12
    June 1965 relating to collective agreements and of the Grand-Ducal Order of 6
    October 1945 dealing with the National Conciliation Office (Office National
    de Conciliation).

Series

  • European Working Conditions Telephone Survey 2021

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Developments in working life, industrial relations and working conditions in the EU

    This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

Forthcoming publications