Eurofound publishes its work in a range of publication formats to match audience needs and the nature of the output. These include flagship reports on a particular area of activity, research reports summarising the findings of a research project and policy briefs presenting policy pointers from
research projects or facts and figures relevant to policy debates. Also included are blog articles, regular articleson working life in Europe, presentations, working papers providing background material to ongoing or already concluded research, and reports arising from ad hoc requests by policymakers. Other corporate publications include annual reports, brochures and promotional publications. Web databases and online resources such as data visualisation applications are available in Data and resources.
This paper looks at wages from two different angles: from the perspective of individual employees, discussed in conjunction with their working conditions, and from the perspective of the industrial relations system. After a brief overview of EU-level policy developments with a potential impact on national level pay determination, this report gives a comparative overview of the levels of collective wage setting and how they are set throughout Europe and goes on to report on reforms, changes or debates linked to these processes between the different actors at both the Member State and the European level in 2011 and 2012. See related publications on wages.
Of all the future challenges facing labour markets in Europe, none is more certain than the demographic imbalances resulting from the lower birth cohorts after the post-war ‘baby boom’ and the continual increase in life expectancy. Indeed, this has already led to a significant shift in the age structure in practically all European countries. This paper was produced as a discussion paper for the European Commission’s thematic review seminar on ‘Employment policies to promote active ageing’, which took place in Brussels on 11 June 2012.
This report gives an overview of the extension mechanisms of collective bargaining agreements, deriving its data from the Eurofound industrial relations country profiles (2009). In principle, collective agreements are only legally enforceable against contracting parties. National and sectoral collective bargaining agreements can, however, be extended so that they also apply to employees and employers who were not represented by the social partners signing the agreement. Such cases of extension mechanisms, in which rights are owed towards all parties, exist in almost all EU Member States (Sciarra, 2005).
While there has been some recovery since the depths of the Great Recession in 2009, both output and employment levels remain lower than they were pre-crisis in the EU-27. Indeed, the severity of the recession has been such that output has yet to return to 2007 levels in each of the largest Member States, even in those like Germany where recovery has been most stable. Moreover, growth forecasts have been revised downwards throughout 2011 signalling the weakness of the recovery and the presence of negative global economic and financial risks. Most recently, on 21 September 2011, the IMF revised growth forecasts downwards throughout the developed world.
This background paper provides an overview of recent developments in wage setting in the EU Member States by providing: a brief overview of wage setting mechanisms currently in place within the Member States and Norway; an overview of 'average' collectively agreed pay in 2009 and 2010 for those countries where databases of collective agreements are available; and recent information from Eurofound's network of European correspondents on wage-related collective bargaining in 2011 as well as discussions on the reforms of wage setting mechanisms.
This customised report responds to a request from the EESC’s Labour Market Observatory (LMO) for the Foundation to present data, research and findings on the financing and operation of active labour market programmes during and after the crisis (2008 to date). Eurofound proposed to use its network of national correspondents (in 10 countries) to provide up-to-date data on recent developments and policy changes, especially those that have occurred since the beginning of the economic crisis in late 2008.
This background paper by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (Eurofound) investigates the different forms of wage indexation that can be found across Europe. It presents the main characteristics of wage indexation, and looks at the legislation and levels of bargaining to this end, as well as the views and positions of the social partners and the role of the state.
This report uses recent findings from two observatories of the European Foundation for the Improvement and Living Conditions (Eurofound); the European Industrial Relations Observatory (EIRO) and the European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) – as well as Eurostat data, to examine trends in compensation for public employees (in particular, local government workers), employment levels and employment relations issues within the state sector. The main focus is on developments over the period of the economic crisis – that is, from 2008 to the present – in the 27 EU Member States (EU27) and Norway, but with reference where relevant to earlier material.
This paper looks at a number of sectors which are important for the Latvian economy, such as electromechanical engineering, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, computers, transport and health and social work. It draws on the European Commission’s comprehensive sectoral analysis of emerging competencies and economic activities conducted in 2008–2009 in cooperation with Eurofound. For this background paper, Eurofound has highlighted results that are of particular relevance for Latvia.