Eurofound publishes its work in a range of publication formats to match audience needs and the nature of the output. These include flagship reports on a particular area of activity, research reports summarising the findings of a research project and policy briefs presenting policy pointers from
research projects or facts and figures relevant to policy debates. Also included are blog articles, regular articleson working life in Europe, presentations, working papers providing background material to ongoing or already concluded research, and reports arising from ad hoc requests by policymakers. Other corporate publications include annual reports, brochures and promotional publications. Web databases and online resources such as data visualisation applications are available in Data and resources.
This report gives an overview of the extension mechanisms of collective bargaining agreements, deriving its data from the Eurofound industrial relations country profiles (2009). In principle, collective agreements are only legally enforceable against contracting parties. National and sectoral collective bargaining agreements can, however, be extended so that they also apply to employees and employers who were not represented by the social partners signing the agreement. Such cases of extension mechanisms, in which rights are owed towards all parties, exist in almost all EU Member States (Sciarra, 2005).
Most countries give employee representatives the opportunity to fulfil their tasks. Time off is generally provided, although the number of hours varies from one country to another. This report combines an overview on the time-off provided in the legal frameworks of the different EU Member States with an analysis of what this means in practice for the employee representatives. Eurofound collected data on time off for employee representatives in its European Company Survey (ECS) in 2009.
While there has been some recovery since the depths of the Great Recession in 2009, both output and employment levels remain lower than they were pre-crisis in the EU-27. Indeed, the severity of the recession has been such that output has yet to return to 2007 levels in each of the largest Member States, even in those like Germany where recovery has been most stable. Moreover, growth forecasts have been revised downwards throughout 2011 signalling the weakness of the recovery and the presence of negative global economic and financial risks. Most recently, on 21 September 2011, the IMF revised growth forecasts downwards throughout the developed world.
This background paper provides an overview of recent developments in wage setting in the EU Member States by providing: a brief overview of wage setting mechanisms currently in place within the Member States and Norway; an overview of 'average' collectively agreed pay in 2009 and 2010 for those countries where databases of collective agreements are available; and recent information from Eurofound's network of European correspondents on wage-related collective bargaining in 2011 as well as discussions on the reforms of wage setting mechanisms.
This customised report responds to a request from the EESC’s Labour Market Observatory (LMO) for the Foundation to present data, research and findings on the financing and operation of active labour market programmes during and after the crisis (2008 to date). Eurofound proposed to use its network of national correspondents (in 10 countries) to provide up-to-date data on recent developments and policy changes, especially those that have occurred since the beginning of the economic crisis in late 2008.
This background paper by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (Eurofound) investigates the different forms of wage indexation that can be found across Europe. It presents the main characteristics of wage indexation, and looks at the legislation and levels of bargaining to this end, as well as the views and positions of the social partners and the role of the state.
This report uses recent findings from two observatories of the European Foundation for the Improvement and Living Conditions (Eurofound); the European Industrial Relations Observatory (EIRO) and the European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) – as well as Eurostat data, to examine trends in compensation for public employees (in particular, local government workers), employment levels and employment relations issues within the state sector. The main focus is on developments over the period of the economic crisis – that is, from 2008 to the present – in the 27 EU Member States (EU27) and Norway, but with reference where relevant to earlier material.
This paper looks at a number of sectors which are important for the Latvian economy, such as electromechanical engineering, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, computers, transport and health and social work. It draws on the European Commission’s comprehensive sectoral analysis of emerging competencies and economic activities conducted in 2008–2009 in cooperation with Eurofound. For this background paper, Eurofound has highlighted results that are of particular relevance for Latvia.
The automotive sector is of immense importance in developed economies. Simply stated, a car is, after housing, the most expensive purchase that practically all consumers buy or aspire to buy. Automotive manufacturing accounts for just under 7% of all manufacturing in the European Union. Together with the extremely valuable supply chain, branch estimates claim that one third of all EU manufacturing relies on this sector. As cars are generally bought on credit, car manufacturing was one the sectors hit hardest and earliest in the current recession. This report is largely a descriptive account of European and Member State initiatives, which focuses on recent employment and restructuring events and – in particular – measures to deal with the reduced demand while maintaining employment levels. Throughout, it highlights measures recently taken at European level.
Despite progress during the last generation, gender gaps in the labour market are closing only gradually, if at all. At EU level the gap remains at over 17% and has not declined in recent years. Variations in national gender pay gaps around this average figure do not reveal any obvious pattern in terms of economic growth or development; the grouping of countries with the lowest gender pay gaps (<10%) – Belgium, Italy, Malta, Poland and Slovenia – includes both ‘old’ and new Member States with very different rates of employment growth and economic growth. This short report - based on recent Eurofound publications – will try to draw out the implications of recent employment growth for gender equality in the European Union.