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  • Article
    27 Haziran 1997

    Spanish trade unions and employers' organisations recently agreed on a major
    labour market reform. The three objectives of the "April agreements" of 1997
    are to reduce the instability of the labour market, to promote collective
    bargaining, and to plug the gaps in sectoral regulation that were left
    following the final repeal of the Labour Ordinances.

  • Article
    27 Haziran 1997

    Over the last 10 or so years, the Dutch labour market has been characterised
    by increasing flexibility and fragmentation. There is greater variety and
    flexibility with respect to working time, pay, job descriptions, the location
    of work and the term and type of employment contracts. Part-time work has,
    for example, become very popular in the Netherlands. More than one in every
    three Dutch employees (mainly women) has a part-time job, in contrast to an
    average of one in seven for the EU as a whole. There are also various types
    of contract flexibility, such as temporary work, freelance work, on-call
    employment, homeworking and teleworking. Whilst the percentage of flexible
    employment contracts stood at 7.9% of the working population in 1987, by 1995
    it had increased to 10% (Arbeidsverkenning 1987/94. CBS (Central Statistics
    Bureau) (1995)). Nowhere else in Europe does temporary work (through private
    temporary employment agencies) flourish as it does in the Netherlands.
    Temporary workers constitute about 3% of the total available labour supply.

  • Article
    27 Haziran 1997

    On 28 May 1997, new collective agreements were concluded for the 460,000 or
    so employees in west German banking. The signatories were the commerce,
    banking and insurance workers' trade union HBV (Gewerkschaft Handel, Banken
    und Versicherungen) and the white-collar workers' union DAG (Deutsche
    Angestellten-Gewerkschaft) on one side, and the employers' association for
    private banking (Arbeitgeberverband des privaten Bankgewerbes) and the
    collective bargaining community for public banks (Tarifgemeinschaft
    öffentlicher Banken) on the other.

  • Article
    27 Haziran 1997

    Compulsory competitive tendering (CCT) was one of the key privatisation
    measures introduced into the public sector by the Conservative governments of
    1979-97, coming into effect 17 years ago for "blue-collar" services and four
    years ago for "white-collar" services. The argument behind it was that
    greater competition would induce greater efficiency and hence savings in
    public expenditure. The Labour Government, however, believes that compulsion
    in itself is not the best method and should instead be replaced by a promise
    to provide "best value" for money.

  • CAR
    27 Haziran 1997

    /Combating racial discrimination and xenophobia is an issue which has become
    increasingly prominent on the European Union agenda in recent years. Since
    the mid-1980s, a rising tide of concern with the problem can be perceived in
    various declarations and resolutions by Community institutions, and notably
    in the inclusion of the issue of racial discrimination in the 1989 "Social
    Charter". The past two years, especially, have seen significant developments,
    many of which are of direct relevance to employment and industrial
    relations./

  • Article
    27 Haziran 1997

    The results of the latest collective bargaining round at company level in
    industry are emerging. An estimate from the Confederation of Danish
    Industries (DI) shows an average increase in pay of 1.7%, or between DKK 1.75
    and DKK 2.00 per hour. The increase is higher than in 1996, when bargaining
    at company level produced an increase of between DKK 1.50 and DKK 1.75 per
    hour

  • Article
    27 Haziran 1997

    The June 1996 Alitalia collective agreement was reached after two years of
    difficult bargaining, and is intended to restructure the company, which is
    beset by severe financial problems. This restructuring involves a reduction
    of labour costs in exchange for the setting-up of a fund for the purchase of
    shares set aside for the company's employees. This fund will be created when
    the European Commission has authorised the ITL 2,800 billion increase in
    capital envisaged by the restructuring plan. One year on from the renewal of
    the national contract, the participatory bargaining model envisaged by the
    Alitalia agreement may be considered of key importance both for improving the
    competitive position of this company, and regulating industrial relations in
    the transport sector.

  • Article
    27 Haziran 1997

    After the failure in late 1996 (BE9702101F [1]) to come to a national
    intersectoral agreement for 1997-8, the Belgian Government gave the
    lower-level negotiators on both sides a clear message: the maximum pay
    increase should be 6.1% spread over two years (1997 and 1998). The
    negotiators have apparently respected the Government's position: the average
    increase in labour costs arising from sectoral collective agreements is
    between 5.6% and 5.7%. The Government also guaranteed an annual subsidy of
    BEF 150,000 to help offset the cost of each newly created job, if two of the
    following employment schemes were part of the negotiated agreement -
    part-time work, part-time early retirement, flexible work schedules,
    collective reduction of working hours, additional training and temporary
    leave or career breaks (loopbaanonderbreking).

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/industrial-relations-undefined-labour-market/apparent-breakdown-of-belgian-central-bargaining

  • Article
    27 Haziran 1997

    In March 1997, the US, British, Canadian, French, Belgian and Dutch Allied
    Forces stationed in Germany employed around 30,000 civilian employees. Due to
    the end of the cold war and the resulting closure of bases and reduction of
    troops by the Allied Forces, civilian employment fell from 105,000 in 1985 to
    75,000 in 1991 to 31,000 in 1996. Civilian employees typically work in jobs
    such as office staff, transport and storage staff, mechanics, security staff,
    firefighters, technicians, electricians, cleaners and caterers.

  • Article
    27 Haziran 1997

    Ireland's newly elected Government, a minority centrist coalition between
    Fianna Fail and the Progressive Democrats (PDs), is firmly committed to
    implementing /Partners/ /hip 2000/, which was agreed between the social
    partners and the former "rainbow" coalition Government in January 1997
    (IE9702103F [1]). The rainbow Government was a left-of-centre administration
    made up of Fine Gael, the Labour Party and the Democratic Left.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined/social-partners-agree-three-year-national-programme

Series

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2003

    Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2007

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2012

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003. 

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2005

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2010

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Manufacturing employment outlook

    This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.

Forthcoming publications