Spanish trade unions and employers' organisations recently agreed on a major
labour market reform. The three objectives of the "April agreements" of 1997
are to reduce the instability of the labour market, to promote collective
bargaining, and to plug the gaps in sectoral regulation that were left
following the final repeal of the Labour Ordinances.
Over the last 10 or so years, the Dutch labour market has been characterised
by increasing flexibility and fragmentation. There is greater variety and
flexibility with respect to working time, pay, job descriptions, the location
of work and the term and type of employment contracts. Part-time work has,
for example, become very popular in the Netherlands. More than one in every
three Dutch employees (mainly women) has a part-time job, in contrast to an
average of one in seven for the EU as a whole. There are also various types
of contract flexibility, such as temporary work, freelance work, on-call
employment, homeworking and teleworking. Whilst the percentage of flexible
employment contracts stood at 7.9% of the working population in 1987, by 1995
it had increased to 10% (Arbeidsverkenning 1987/94. CBS (Central Statistics
Bureau) (1995)). Nowhere else in Europe does temporary work (through private
temporary employment agencies) flourish as it does in the Netherlands.
Temporary workers constitute about 3% of the total available labour supply.
On 28 May 1997, new collective agreements were concluded for the 460,000 or
so employees in west German banking. The signatories were the commerce,
banking and insurance workers' trade union HBV (Gewerkschaft Handel, Banken
und Versicherungen) and the white-collar workers' union DAG (Deutsche
Angestellten-Gewerkschaft) on one side, and the employers' association for
private banking (Arbeitgeberverband des privaten Bankgewerbes) and the
collective bargaining community for public banks (Tarifgemeinschaft
öffentlicher Banken) on the other.
Compulsory competitive tendering (CCT) was one of the key privatisation
measures introduced into the public sector by the Conservative governments of
1979-97, coming into effect 17 years ago for "blue-collar" services and four
years ago for "white-collar" services. The argument behind it was that
greater competition would induce greater efficiency and hence savings in
public expenditure. The Labour Government, however, believes that compulsion
in itself is not the best method and should instead be replaced by a promise
to provide "best value" for money.
/Combating racial discrimination and xenophobia is an issue which has become
increasingly prominent on the European Union agenda in recent years. Since
the mid-1980s, a rising tide of concern with the problem can be perceived in
various declarations and resolutions by Community institutions, and notably
in the inclusion of the issue of racial discrimination in the 1989 "Social
Charter". The past two years, especially, have seen significant developments,
many of which are of direct relevance to employment and industrial
The results of the latest collective bargaining round at company level in
industry are emerging. An estimate from the Confederation of Danish
Industries (DI) shows an average increase in pay of 1.7%, or between DKK 1.75
and DKK 2.00 per hour. The increase is higher than in 1996, when bargaining
at company level produced an increase of between DKK 1.50 and DKK 1.75 per
The June 1996 Alitalia collective agreement was reached after two years of
difficult bargaining, and is intended to restructure the company, which is
beset by severe financial problems. This restructuring involves a reduction
of labour costs in exchange for the setting-up of a fund for the purchase of
shares set aside for the company's employees. This fund will be created when
the European Commission has authorised the ITL 2,800 billion increase in
capital envisaged by the restructuring plan. One year on from the renewal of
the national contract, the participatory bargaining model envisaged by the
Alitalia agreement may be considered of key importance both for improving the
competitive position of this company, and regulating industrial relations in
the transport sector.
After the failure in late 1996 (BE9702101F ) to come to a national
intersectoral agreement for 1997-8, the Belgian Government gave the
lower-level negotiators on both sides a clear message: the maximum pay
increase should be 6.1% spread over two years (1997 and 1998). The
negotiators have apparently respected the Government's position: the average
increase in labour costs arising from sectoral collective agreements is
between 5.6% and 5.7%. The Government also guaranteed an annual subsidy of
BEF 150,000 to help offset the cost of each newly created job, if two of the
following employment schemes were part of the negotiated agreement -
part-time work, part-time early retirement, flexible work schedules,
collective reduction of working hours, additional training and temporary
leave or career breaks (loopbaanonderbreking).
In March 1997, the US, British, Canadian, French, Belgian and Dutch Allied
Forces stationed in Germany employed around 30,000 civilian employees. Due to
the end of the cold war and the resulting closure of bases and reduction of
troops by the Allied Forces, civilian employment fell from 105,000 in 1985 to
75,000 in 1991 to 31,000 in 1996. Civilian employees typically work in jobs
such as office staff, transport and storage staff, mechanics, security staff,
firefighters, technicians, electricians, cleaners and caterers.
Ireland's newly elected Government, a minority centrist coalition between
Fianna Fail and the Progressive Democrats (PDs), is firmly committed to
implementing /Partners/ /hip 2000/, which was agreed between the social
partners and the former "rainbow" coalition Government in January 1997
(IE9702103F ). The rainbow Government was a left-of-centre administration
made up of Fine Gael, the Labour Party and the Democratic Left.
Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.
The retail banking sector is fertile ground for studying the impacts of digitalisation on work and employment. Financial services are increasingly provided online, without the intermediary of customer-facing institutions. Many banks in the sector have been undergoing serial restructuring since the global financial crisis, and it is one of the few service sectors with stagnant or declining employment.
This policy brief will provide an update on upward convergence in the economic, social and institutional dimensions of the European Union, as outlined in the European Pillar of Social Rights and its accompanying Social Scoreboard.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the electricity sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the electricity sector in the EU Member States.
This paper provides an analytical summary of state of the art academic and policy literature on the impact of climate change and policies to manage transitions to a carbon neutral economy on employment, working conditions, social dialogue and living conditions. It maps the key empirical findings around the impact of climate change and the green transitions on jobs, sectors, regions and countries in Europe, identifying the opportunities and risks that climate change policies bring to European labour markets.
Given that compliance with lockdown measures is a first line of defence against COVID-19, maintaining trust in institutions is vital to ensure a coordinated, comprehensive and effective response to the pandemic. This report investigates developments in institutional and interpersonal trust across time, with a particular emphasis on the COVID-19 pandemic period and its impact. It examines the link between trust and discontent and investigates the effect of multidimensional inequalities as a driver of distrust.
The civil aviation sector has been deeply impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. It is one of the most severe crises the sector has ever experienced, giving rise to a number of significant challenges for companies and workers alike. This study will explore the role of social dialogue and collective bargaining in how the sector is adapting to the pandemic. What kinds of changes have been introduced, either through social dialogue or collective bargaining? Are the changes temporary or permanent?
Lockdown measures and the economic shift following the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a widening of the gender divide between men and women, putting at risk some of the gender equality gains that had been made in previous years. This report analyses changes in the distribution of paid and unpaid work, along with care and domestic responsibilities, among men and women during the crisis. It also explores the impact of the pandemic on the well-being of women and men.
The report provides an overview of the scale of teleworking before and during the COVID-19 crisis and gives an indication of ‘teleworkability’ across sectors and occupations. Building on previous Eurofound research on remote work, the report investigates the way businesses introduced and supported teleworking during the pandemic, as well as the experience of workers who were working from home during the crisis. The report also looks at developments in regulations related to telework in Member States and provides a review of stakeholders’ positions.
The hospital sector has been deeply impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Hospitals and their workers are on the frontline in the fight against the virus, and they face a number of significant challenges in terms of resources, work organisation and working conditions. This study will explore the role of social dialogue and collective bargaining in how the sector is adapting to the pandemic. What kinds of changes have been introduced, either through social dialogue or collective bargaining? Are the changes temporary or permanent?
The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic have varied across sectors, occupations and categories of worker (for instance, according to gender, age or employment status). Hours worked have declined the most in sectors such as accommodation services and food and beverage services, and in occupations heavily reliant on in-person interaction, such as sales work. At the same time, it’s in these sectors that labour shortages have become increasingly evident as labour markets have begun to normalise.