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  • Article
    27 Mayıs 1997

    An agreement on resolving labour disputes out of court was signed in January
    1996 by Spain's largest unions (UGT and CC.OO) and employers' associations
    (CEOE and CEPYME), covering the period until 31 December 2000. The agreement
    built on the experience in mediation and arbitration at a regional level that
    had grown on the basis of joint quasi-judicial institutions formed in the
    1990s. We review the complex system which now applies in this area.

  • Article
    27 Mayıs 1997

    Employment yielding less than ATS 3,740 gross per month or less than ATS 859
    per week or ATS 288 per day, is defined as "minor". Below this threshold,
    neither employee nor employer has to contribute to the national pension or
    health or unemployment insurance. Only national accident insurance has to be
    paid. Minor employment therefore does not earn an entitlement to unemployment
    benefits, maternity benefits, a pension, or medical coverage. On the other
    hand, because of the lower cost, minor employment may be an incentive for
    employers to hire.

  • Article
    27 Mayıs 1997

    The publication of an assessment commissioned by the National Assembly's
    Finance Commission, and the campaign for the May/June 1997 general election,
    have reopened the debate in France on the content and efficiency of the
    Robien law, which seeks to encourage working time reductions and
    reorganisation to create or save jobs. Politicians, economists, employers and
    unions remain divided whilst the number of collective agreements at company
    level based on the law is increasing.

  • Article
    27 Mayıs 1997

    Non-wage labour costs are those categories of the enterprise's total labour
    costs comprising other than direct compensation. Today, non-wage labour costs
    account for a very substantial and rising proportion of total labour costs.
    Since increasing labour costs tend to encourage substitution away from labour
    to more capital-intensive methods of production, rising non-wage labour costs
    are an impediment to job creation. Furthermore, some non-wage labour costs -
    such as social security contributions - drive a wedge between the labour
    costs that companies pay and the money that workers receive, thus making
    collective bargaining more difficult. Via unit labour costs - nominal labour
    costs divided by real value added - non-wage labour costs are likely to have
    some effect on companies' location decisions.

  • Article
    27 Mayıs 1997

    May 1997 saw Unilever defending its pro-European stance to shareholders,
    while the Confederation of British Industry (CBI) was also signalling its
    willingness to work with the trade unions prior to the adoption of European
    Union legislation.

  • Article
    27 Mayıs 1997

    The Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions (LO), the largest employee
    confederation in Norway, held its four-yearly congress on 10-16 May 1997. The
    most important issues were the question of continuing with the "Solidarity
    Alternative", and the adoption of the Action Programme for the period
    1997-2001. A discussion also took place between LO unions regarding the
    confederation's policy towards the privatisation of public activities
    (services), while the vice-presidency election received considerable

  • Article
    27 Mayıs 1997

    The findings of a Eurostat study entitled /Statistics in focus: income
    distribution and poverty in the EU 12 - 1993/, published on 14 May 1997, show
    that one out of six citizens and households in the 12 pre-1995 EU member
    states live below the "poverty threshold". In more than half of these
    countries, the figure was even higher - one in five. Even more alarmingly,
    over one-third of poor households were working. These findings are drawn from
    the first wave of statistics generated from the European Community Household
    Panel (ECHP). The ECHP consists of a sample of 60,500 households selected
    randomly in the 12 member states, using a harmonised questionnaire. This data
    does not allow for a comparison of social change over time, but does provide
    important information on the magnitude and dimensions of poverty and income
    disparity in the European Union in the early 1990s. The figures show that
    there are approximately 57 million socially excluded individuals in EU, a
    problem affecting both more and less affluent member states.

  • Article
    27 Mayıs 1997

    Recent months have seen an intensifying and unresolved dispute over pensions
    at Transports Metropolitans de Barcelona (TMB), including 14 days of strike
    activity starting on 21 February 1997. This is the first time in four years
    that all the unions represented on the TMB workers' committee have acted
    jointly to claim what they understand as a right laid down in previous


  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications