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In Croatia there is no single definition of persons with a chronic disease. Different systems use different terms, which sometimes results in minor or major practical problems. The Register of Persons with Disabilities is kept in Croatian National Institute of Public Health. Due to the demographic ageing of population (the average age is significantly increasing) the percentage of people with chronic disease has been slightly increasing during the last decade. The main problem of persons with chronic diseases is their lower level of employability that is accompanied by their lower education attainment and their lack of working experience.
Chronic or noncommunicable diseases are the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the country according to the national statistics. Despite that comprehensive statistics and research related to employment of people with chronic diseases is lacking, except some Eurostat surveys. The focus of strategic documents and measures is on the labour market participation of people with disabilities which to some extent overlap with people with chronic diseases. There is also lacking national definition of chronic diseases
As there is no univocal definition of the term ‘chronic disease’ in Belgium, it is rather difficult to create a total view on the labour market situation of persons with chronic diseases in Belgium. The different sources report very varying numbers of persons having chronic diseases. Still, sources indicate the same trends: an increasing number of chronically ill persons, more risk of unemployment and less opportunities of a paid job for people with chronic diseases, a link with age, education level, occupations and gender. The Belgian labour market policy gives special attention to this target group, with protective legislation at the federal level and labour market activating measures at the regional levels.
This report assesses the role of the social partners in advancing gender equality in Europe. It explores the actions taken within the different national frameworks of industrial relations and against the ranking of the Member States on the Gender Equality Index. Overall, significant actions are being taken by European and national social partner organisations and companies in support of gender equality.
This report examines employment opportunities for people with chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, arthritis and mental health problems in the EU28 Member States and Norway. People with a chronic disease may have a reduced working capacity and experience difficulty staying at or returning to work. The report looks at the prevalence of people suffering from chronic diseases, their employment situation, uneven distribution among occupations and sectors, and working conditions. It looks at policies and measures adopted by governments, social partners and enterprises to improve employment prospects and working conditions of people with chronic diseases.
According to a survey conducted in 2011, 2.4 million persons living in Austria, or 41.6% of the working-age population have at least one permanent health problem. Most frequent are back or neck problems. The employment rate of those with chronic diseases is significantly below that of non-impaired individuals and was at 67.2% as compared to 75.8% in 2011, with the difference rising with increasing age. Since 2013, a prevention and early intervention programme (fit2work) has been available nationwide for both employees and unemployed with health impairments preventing them from performing in their jobs, as well as for companies. First results are promising.
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The labour market for people with chronic diseases is not particularly different from the rest of the population and the employment rate and unemployment rate appear to be similar. However, people that have a decreased ability to work diverge from this notion and criticism has been raised towards the labour market entry frictions for this group. Examples include the employer entry fee (arbetsgivarinträde) and other financial responsibilities that employers need to provide.
The study justifies why the term a “chronic disease” is applied in Slovakia with a term “disability” interchangeably. In this line agenda on employment opportunities for people with chronic diseases is presented as the agenda of national disability related employment policy being embodied in the general Labour code, legislation aimed on employment services or social insurance. The author brings some evidence about still only a poor employment situation of persons with disabilities in working age (majority of them gain status of inactive persons) despite current political effort to change it. Consequently, some conditional factors to clarify the unfavourable situation are offered.
Official statistics for the year 2011 indicate that, in Romania, 1.7 million persons suffered from chronic diseases, and that almost a quarter of them - 400,000 - were in employment. Employment of chronic patients has not been addressed by special legislation, their problems are covered by the regulations that govern disabled persons. The employment of chronic patients has not been a topic of prime concern for the organisations of the social partners. The rights and interests of disabled chronically ill persons are defended mostly by non-government organisations.