Living and working in Albania

05 June 2018

  •   Population: 2.8 million (2017)
  •   Real GDP growth: 3.4% (2016)

Data source: Eurostat

Eurofound provides research, data and analysis on a wide range of social and work-related topics. This information is largely comparative, but also offers country-specific information for potential candidate countries.

Eurofound seeks to strengthen the ongoing link between its own work and national policy debates and priorities related to the quality of life and work – in Member States and in potential candidate countries. The Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance programme 2014–2020 is an important tool that supports these countries in better preparing the implementation of public administration reforms, improving their economies and achieving the objectives set during the reform process. In this context, Eurofound country profiles offer a wealth of information on key components of working life in the enlargement countries.

    2015 Eurofound EWCS survey results in Albania: 76% of respondents are able to choose or change their methods of work

    Living in Albania

    Quality of life

    Quality of life

    Findings from Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) show that many of the quality of life indicators are below the EU28 averages in Albania. For instance, average life satisfaction in Albania is lowest of all the countries surveyed in the EQLS, at 4.9 in 2016 versus the EU28 average of 7.1 (on a scale of 1–10). Moreover, 76% of respondents in Albania had difficulties in making ends meet in 2016, a much larger share than the respective EU28 average of 39%.

    However, 67% of respondents in Albania were optimistic about their own future in 2016, which was higher than the EU28 average of 64%. Furthermore, 75% of respondents were optimistic about their children’s or grandchildren’s future in 2016, again higher than the corresponding EU28 average of 57%.

      2003200720112016
    Life satisfactionMean (1-10)---4.9
    Taking all things together on a scale of 1 to 10, how happy would you say you are?Mean (1-10)---5.2
    Optimism about own futureAgree & strongly agree---67%
    Optimism about children’s or grandchildren’s futureAgree & strongly agree---75%
    Take part in sports or physical exerciseAt least once a week---12%
    In general, how is your health?Very good---33%
    WHO-5 mental wellbeing indexMean (1-100)---63
    Making ends meetWith some difficulty, difficulty, and great difficulty---76%
    I feel I am free to decide how to live my lifeStrongly agree---32%
    I find it difficult to deal with important problems that come up in my lifeAgree & strongly agree---57%
    When things go wrong in my life, it generally takes me a long time to get back to normalAgree & strongly agree---61%

    Work-life balance

    Work-life balance

    Work–life balance related problems are more frequent in Albania than on average in the EU. In 2016, 72% of respondents in Albania were too tired from work to do household jobs at least several times a month, compared with a much lower EU28 average of 59%. Moreover, in 2016, 56% of respondents in Albania experienced difficulties to fulfil family responsibilities because of work at least several times a month, again higher than the respective EU average of 38%. The least common work–life balance problem was having difficulties to concentrate at work because of family responsibilities, reported by 37% of respondents in Albania in 2016, but still much higher than the EU28 average of 19%. Looking at the gender-specific breakdowns, the data show that women in Albania report work–life balance problems more often than men.

      2003200720112016
    (At least several times a month)   
    I have come home from work too tired to do some of the household jobs which need to be doneTotal---72%
    Men---64%
    Women---86%
          
    It has been difficult for me to fulfil my family responsibilities because of the amount of time I spend on the jobTotal---56%
    Men---49%
    Women---67%
          
    I have found it difficult to concentrate at work because of my family responsibilitiesTotal---37%
    Men---35%
    Women---41%

    Quality of society

    Quality of society

    Trust in other people is low in Albania, at only 2.4 in 2016 compared with the EU28 average of 5.2 (on a scale of 1–10). Additionally, the Social Exclusion Index score is relatively high in Albania, at 2.7 in 2016 versus the lower EU28 average of 2.1 (on a scale of 1–5 where a higher value means a higher incidence of social exclusion). Perceived tensions between poor and rich people are also higher in Albania than on average in the EU28. In Albania, 46% of respondents reported a lot of tension between poor and rich in 2016, compared with 29% for the EU28.

    However, the share of respondents reporting a lot of tension between different racial and ethnic groups is lower in Albania than on average in the EU. In Albania, 24% of respondents reported a lot of this type of tension in 2016, whereas the EU28 average was 41%. In addition, Albania outperforms the EU28 average also in regard to feeling safe when walking alone after dark: 48% in Albania versus 35% in the EU28.

      2003200720112016
    Social exclusion indexMean (1-5)---2.7
    Trust in peopleMean (1-10)---2.4
    Involvement in unpaid voluntary work% "at least once a month"---4%
    Tension between poor and rich people% reporting 'a lot of tension'---46%
    Tension between different racial and ethnic groups% reporting 'a lot of tension'---24%
    I feel safe when I walk alone after darkStrongly agree---48%

    Quality of public services

    Quality of public services

    Quality ratings for seven public services

    Note: scale of 1-10, Source: EQLS 2016.

    Childcare services in Albania received the highest perceived quality rating among the public services, at 6.2 in 2016, being also relatively close to the EU28 average of 6.7 (on a scale of 1–10). Social housing in Albania received the lowest quality rating of 4.5 in 2016. The perceived quality of the state pension system is also relatively low in comparison to other public services in Albania, at only 4.9 in 2016. However, this rating is very close to the EU28 average of 5.0 in 2016.

      2003200720112016
    Health servicesMean (1-10)---5.3
    Education systemMean (1-10)---5.8
    Public transportMean (1-10)---5.7
    Childcare servicesMean (1-10)---6.2
    Long-term care servicesMean (1-10)---5.6
    Social housingMean (1-10)---4.5
    State pension systemMean (1-10)---4.9

    Working life in Albania

    Working life profile

    Working life profile

    Eurofound is currently working on a new working life profile for Albania. It will be a complex update on industrial relations and working conditions aiming to provide the relevant background information on the structures, institutions and regulations related to working life. This includes indicators, data and regulatory systems on the following aspects: actors and institutions, collective and individual employment relations, health and well-being, pay, working time, skills and training, and equality and non-discrimination at work.

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