Measures implemented by companies to help their employees in reconciling work
and family responsibilities are still relatively rare in Italy. However, the
findings of a survey, published in 2003, highlight a number of interesting
'family-friendly' schemes introduced by Italian companies in recent years.
The survey indicates that these companies provide a varied mix of measures,
including innovative working time arrangements and telework, company services
for families and childcare, allowances and benefits, and specific
career-support measures for employees with family commitments.
Hungary, with an average per capita GDP of less than 75% of the EU average,
expects to use approximately HUF 1,100 billion to HUF 1,600 billion (EUR 4.4
billion to EUR 6.4 billion) of money from the Community Structural and
Cohesion Funds – Hungarian co-financing included – over the period
between its accession to the Union on 1 May 2004 and the end of 2006.
Pursuant to EU Council Regulation (EC) No. 1260/1999  laying down general
provisions on the Structural Funds, eligible countries are expected to
prepare their development objectives and priorities in the framework of
National Development Plans (NDPs) and submit them to the European Commission.
These NDPs will be the basis for discussions with the Commission which will
produce Community Support Frameworks (CSFs) containing the financial
commitments of the EU and the government of the recipient country concerning
spending on jointly financed development areas. According to Article 8 of the
Council Regulation, partnership between the national government and social as
well as civil actors is a key component of the Plans. The application of the
principle of partnership should be extended to the preparation, financing,
monitoring and evaluation of Community grants.
The major industrial dispute over a new collective agreement for blue-collar
workers in the municipal and city council sector (SE0305101N ) was due to
escalate in the first week of June 2003. Some 47,000 members of the Municipal
Workers' Union (Svenska Kommunalarbetareförbundet, Kommunal) were already on
indefinite strike across the country since the previous week and the union
gave notice of a further strike from 4 June by 18,000 bus drivers in Sweden's
three largest cities. Stockholm, Göteborg and Malmö, plus 137
municipalities (out of 290), were thus due to be hard hit by industrial
action. The Union of Service and Communication (Facket för Service och
Kommunikation, Seko) had also given notice of a sympathy strike by all 400
train drivers on commuter services in the three cities, adding to the
expected traffic chaos.
January 2003 saw the first genuine strikes organised in Slovakia since it
became independent in 1993 (SK0211103F ). The strikes took place on the
railways as a consequence of long-term disputes between trade unions and
management. Railworkers had previously been on the verge of strike action on
several occasions in recent years. In late 1998 there were calls for a
strike, while in the following year trade unions set a strike date during
lengthy negotiations on pay increases. However, the negotiations led to a
compromise with railways management and the planned strike was cancelled. In
2001, a two-hour strike was announced by the trade unions but cancelled one
hour before it was due to start because of a lack of organisational
In April 2003, a new law on 'social employment' came into force in Poland,
aimed at providing support and employment to up to the country's large number
of people faced with social exclusion, such as long-term unemployed people,
alcoholics and drug addicts, former prisoners, and people with mental
illnesses. The legislation sets up social integration centres to provide
assistance and integration programmes, and creates a system of subsidised
employment to encourage employers to take on people from the target groups.
In the 2003 Dutch collective bargaining round, occupational pension issues
have led to a deadlock in negotiations at a number of major companies,
notably in financial services and industry. Employers want to reform their
pension schemes radically, as shrinking capital reserves and increasing
numbers of claimants have depleted their funds. The Akzo Nobel chemicals
group even wants to hive off its pension fund, making it independent. The
trade unions are fiercely opposed to this plan and other more drastic
austerity measures, but are increasingly prepared to accept a greater use of
average-salary rather than final-salary schemes and a temporary suspension of
The French government is due to propose legislation after the summer 2003
parliamentary recess reforming the 'minimum integration income' (RMI) benefit
and assistance scheme for people facing labour market difficulties. Much of
the responsibility for the scheme is to be decentralised to local level,
while a new form of employment contract - the 'minimum employment income'
contract - will be introduced for people who have been receiving RMI for two
The French government was forced to amend its controversial proposals on
pension reform by wide-scale strike action and demonstrations organised in
protest on 13 May 2003. Following talks with the social partners, it revised
the plan - though not the key point of increasing the contribution period
required for a full pension - on the basis of a deal agreed by two trade
union confederations, CFDT and CFE-CGC. The talks thus led to a split in the
united trade union front on the issue, and unions opposed to the planned
reform have called more protest action. Parliamentary debate on the bill
began in June and is expected to to be completed in July.
Der Bericht vermittelt einen Überblick über die - in Tarifverträgen
vereinbarte und gesetzlich geregelte - Dauer der Arbeitszeit in der
Europäischen Union und in Norwegen im Jahr 2002 (und 2001), der auf den
Beiträgen der nationalen Zentren des Europäischen Observatoriums für die
Entwicklung der Arbeitsbeziehungen (EIRO) basiert. Zum ersten Mal
berücksichtigen wir auch Daten von drei der Kandidatenländern, die 2004 in
die EU aufgenommen werden: Ungarn, Polen und die Slowakei.
Nous tentons dans la présente étude de dégager une vue d’ensemble de la
durée du temps de travail - telle qu’elle est établie par les conventions
collectives et la législation - dans l’Union européenne et la Norvège en
2002 (et 2001), basée sur les contributions des centres nationaux de
l’Observatoire européen des relations industrielles (EIRO). Pour la
première fois, nous incluons certaines données sur trois des pays candidats
qui rejoindront l’UE en 2004 - la Hongrie, la Pologne et la Slovaquie.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
This report investigates the convergence of Member States in various dimensions of living conditions. Indicators are drawn from the European Quality of Life Surveys and other surveys. The analysis pays special attention to particular subgroups such as young people and women. The analysis also investigates the key drivers of convergence in living conditions.
This joint publication with the European Environment Agency (EEA) presents the findings from complementary research carried out simultaneously by both agencies on the socioeconomic impacts of climate policies and measures. While Eurofound focuses particularly on the distributional effects of these policies based on the experiences of Member States, the EEA analyses scientific research about the monetary and non-monetary social impacts of climate mitigation policies and its outcome in terms of inequalities.
This report addresses the main developments in statutory and collectively agreed working time regulation in 2019 and 2020. It covers several aspects of the duration of working time in the EU, such as information on maximum numbers of working days and weeks, normal working weeks and paid annual leave across the countries and within selected sectors. The report focuses on the education, health, transport, retail and public administration sectors, and provides accounts of major developments in working time regulation as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.
This policy brief uses the data from the European Company Survey 2019 to examine the workplace practices of export-oriented companies and to analyse how these practices relate to outcomes. It also examines why these companies choose the workplace practices they adopt.
This report examines the labour market changes brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic, which has affected sectors and occupations quite differently. It identifies those labour market categories most exposed to negative labour market outcomes. It analyses how differences in confinement and public health approaches may have contributed to different outcomes. It addresses previous assessments of the extent of occupational ‘teleworkability’ and of the sectoral impact of confinement rules. The report draws on EU Labour Force Survey (EU-LFS) data for its analysis.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the audiovisual sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the audiovisual sector in the EU Member States.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the live performance sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the live performance sector in the EU Member States.
This report analyses and compares the industrial relations landscape in a number of sectors and activities that form a public service cluster. The report draws on Eurofound’s recent representativeness studies investigating the following sectors: education, human health, central government administration and local and regional government sector (including social services).
Building on Eurofound’s previous research on youth, this report examines the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on young people, in particular their economic and social situation, with a focus on employment. It will also estimate how the NEET population – young people not in employment, education or training – has changed in size and composition over the last decade, and how the current crisis might affect this.
This report explores the impact of the use of digital technologies on work organisation and job quality, as well as the role of social dialogue and employee involvement in the digitisation process. The three technologies analysed are the Internet of Things, 3D printing, and virtual and augmented reality. The report draws on the views of experts and policy stakeholders and includes insights from 10 case studies of European establishments that have deployed one or more of the three digital technologies.