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  • Article
    25 June 2003

    In June 2003, management and trade unions signed a preliminary agreement on a
    unified collective agreement for two of Spain's nuclear power plants, those
    at Almaraz and Trillo. This may represent the first step towards a sectoral
    agreement for the sector, where bargaining currently occurs at plant level.

  • Article
    25 June 2003

    In summer 2003, France's Minister of Health announced that a reform of the
    sickness insurance system is to be presented in the autumn. While an
    increasing deficit posted by the sickness insurance funds has made this
    overhaul necessary, industrial relations tensions in the healthcare sector
    suggest that implementation may be problematic. The details of the reform are
    as yet unknown, but the major thrust appears to be a reduction in compulsory
    sickness insurance cover and the creation of specific measures for
    lower-income people.

  • Article
    25 June 2003

    Die Erweiterung der Europäischen Union, bei der voraussichtlich ab 2004 bis
    zu 12 Länder Mittel- und Osteuropas sowie des Mittelmeerraums der EU
    beitreten werden, rückt immer näher. Vor diesem Hintergrund hat das
    Europäische Observatorium für die Entwicklung der Arbeitsbeziehungen (EIRO)
    die Erfassung der Entwicklungen im Bereich der Arbeitsbeziehungen auf die
    beitrittswilligen Länder ausgeweitet.

  • Article
    25 June 2003

    Arbeitskämpfe - Streiks, Aussperrungen usw. - sind einer der vorrangigsten
    Aspekte von Arbeitsbeziehungen, nicht zuletzt in Bezug auf ihre Behandlung in
    den Medien sowie hinsichtlich ihrer Auswirkungen auf die und ihre Beachtung
    in der Öffentlichkeit. In manchen Quellen werden Arbeitskämpfe als
    wichtiger Indikator für das Funktionieren von Systemen im Bereich der
    Arbeitsbeziehungen betrachtet, wobei Arbeitskämpfe zum Teil als Zeichen für
    die Fehlfunktion eines Systems betrachtet werden, während sie von anderen
    als ein ralativ normales Merkmal eines gesunden und gut funktionierenden
    Systems angesehen werden. Im Juni 2001 veröffentlichte die Europäische
    Kommission eine Mitteilung über Beschäftigungs- und Sozialpolitik: ein
    Konzept für Investitionen in Qualität [1]. In diesem Dokument werden Wege
    und Möglichkeiten zur Förderung der 'Qualität' in der Beschäftigungs- und
    Sozialpolitik vorgeschlagen; es enthält ferner Vorschläge für eine Reihe
    von Indikatoren zur Messung dieser Qualität. Einer der unter 'Sozialer
    Dialog und Arbeitnehmermitbestimmung' aufgeführten Indikatoren sind 'durch
    Arbeitskämpfe verlorene Arbeitstage'.


  • Article
    25 June 2003

    In its 2002 'Report on industrial accidents and occupational illnesses',
    Spain's UGT trade union confederation examines the country's high industrial
    accident and illness rate and seeks to identify the causes. These are found
    to to be lack of compliance with the relevant legislation by companies, and
    the high level of subcontracting, temporary contracts and temporary agency
    work, which particularly affects young workers.

  • Article
    25 June 2003

    Les actions syndicales - grèves, lock-outs, etc. - sont l’un des aspects
    les plus visibles des relations industrielles, notamment en termes de
    couverture médiatique et d’impact sur le public. Ces actions sont souvent
    considérées comme un indicateur important du bon fonctionnement ou non du
    système de relations industrielles, les actions syndicales étant perçues
    par certains comme un signe de dysfonctionnement du système alors que pour
    d’autres, il s’agit d’une caractéristique assez normale d’un
    système en bonne santé fonctionnant correctement. En juin 2001, la
    Commission européenne a publié une communication intitulée Politiques
    sociales et de l’emploi: un cadre pour investir dans la qualité [1]. Ce
    document propose différentes façons de promouvoir la 'qualité' dans
    l’emploi et la politique sociale et prévoit un ensemble d’indicateurs
    pour mesurer cette qualité. Un des indicateurs en termes de 'dialogue social
    et participation des travailleurs' porte sur les 'journées de travail
    perdues à la suite de conflits du travail'.


  • Article
    25 June 2003

    In summer 2003, work is due to start on a revision of the Toledo pact, the
    1995 agreement on the Spanish pensions system, in the light of gloomy
    demographic and expenditure forecasts. The government is seeking various
    changes, notably linking pensions to contributions paid over the entire
    career, the development of private pension schemes, a halt to early
    retirement and an increase in the retirement age. A recent European
    Commission report has contributed to the debate.

  • Article
    24 June 2003

    In June 2003, the Cologne Institute for Business Research (Institut der
    deutschen Wirtschaft, IW [1]) published a report which finds that a 40-hour
    working week (or longer) is still a reality for 44% of all employees in
    eastern Germany. Moreover, only slightly more than one-fifth of all west
    German employees have a 35-hour week, while over half work 38 hours a week or
    more. The figures - see table 1 below - indicate that the 35-hour week is
    less common in Germany than is commonly thought.


  • Article
    24 June 2003

    New legislation adopted in May 2003 makes important changes to the employment
    conditions and status of Luxembourg's 21,000 civil servants. For example,
    civil servants will now find it easier to work part time and will have a more
    transparent disciplinary procedure. The age limit for starting work in the
    civil service has been raised from 40 to 45 years of age, teleworking is now
    possible, and equality delegates are to be appointed in all administrative

  • Article
    24 June 2003

    In late April 2003, the management of the Arcelor steel group and trade
    unions at Cockerill Sambre, its subsidiary in Wallonia, Belgium, reached
    agreement on the gradual closure of the company's blast furnaces in Liège.
    This feature examines the changing objectives and strategies of management,
    the unions and the Walloon regional government during the affair, and
    outlines Arcelor's latest investment project in Wallonia along with a number
    of unresolved problems.


  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications