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  • Article
    3 August 2003

    A draft bill on further liberalisation of the electrical power market, issued
    by the Greek Ministry of Development in June 2003, has provoked strong
    reactions from the industry's workers, who held protest strikes in June and

  • Article
    3 August 2003

    In July 2003, a new national collective agreement for Italy's 200,000 postal
    workers was signed by Poste Italiane SpA and sectoral trade unions. The deal
    provides for a 7.5%. pay increase over two years, as well as introducing a
    new job classification system and greater flexibility in working time and
    forms of employment.

  • Article
    3 August 2003

    This article examines the French situation, as of June 2003, with regard to:
    legislation and collective bargaining on the pay and conditions of posted
    workers (ie workers from one EU Member State posted by their employer to work
    in another); the number of such posted workers; and the views of the social
    partners and government on the issue.

  • Article
    3 August 2003

    In May 2003, as part of the demationalisation of Hellenic Petroleum, an
    agreement was signed to merge it with the Greek private sector oil company,
    Petrola. The POEPDHV petrochemical workers' trade union opposes the merger on
    the grounds that it is economically infeasible and furthermore claims that
    the merger procedure ignored commitments to social dialogue. It called a
    strike at Hellenic Petroleum in July.

  • Article
    3 August 2003

    July 2003 saw the launch of the Luxembourg Automobile Parts Industry (ILEA),
    a new industry and employers' federation for the country's automotive parts
    industry. The new body brings together 15 enterprises in this growing sector,
    together employing over 8,000 workers.

  • Article
    3 August 2003

    Romania is currently facing large-scale redundancies as a result of the
    restructuring, reorganisation and privatisation of state-owned enterprises.
    In line with the government’s Emergency Ordinance No. 8/2003 regarding
    incentives for such restructuring, and given that under the new Labour Code
    (introduced adopted by Law No. 53/2003) such workforce reductions are to be
    addressed in a different manner than in the past, a plan has been developed
    to overcome the social tensions and difficulties that might arise from the
    forecast redundancies. A Social Assistance Programme (Program de
    Acompaniament Social, AS) was thus launched on 14 April 2003, envisaging a
    better activation of local development opportunities; 13 of Romania’s
    counties (out of a total of 41) are to be affected.

  • Article
    3 August 2003

    In July 2003, the lower chamber of the Polish parliament passed a law
    regulating temporary agency work (approval by the upper house is to follow).
    Agency work has been growing in Poland in recent years, and its regulation
    has been debated for some time. The new legislation defines temporary agency
    work and lays down rules on its use and on the employment conditions of
    agency workers.

  • Article
    3 August 2003

    According to figures issued by Poland's State Labour Inspection in mid-2003,
    310 new single-establishment collective agreements were registered in 2002,
    covering some 118,000 employees (most Polish collective bargaining occurs at
    single-employer level). The agreements' provisions primarily covered
    remuneration, working time and leave. Terms more favourable to employees than
    the legal minima are becoming less frequent in collective agreements, while
    there is an increasing tendency for the parties to agreements to suspend
    application of all or some of their provisions.

  • Article
    3 August 2003

    In 2002, the Ministry of Labour started a three-year experiment of using
    private 'job hunters' to find work for long-term unemployed people. The
    experiment has been conducted in employment offices in the largest cities.
    The aim is to find jobs for people who have been unemployed for longer than
    six months, or for a shorter period in the case of people with special
    difficulties in finding a job - eg owing to age or disability. The job
    hunters can be private firms, associations or individuals operating as
    entrepreneurs. Agreements to provide such services are reached between the
    employment offices and the job hunters after a competitive tender process, in
    the same way as in any other public procurement. Each employment office can
    reach an agreement with several job hunters, who then conclude contracts with
    the unemployed people concerned, selected from candidates proposed by the
    employment office. The client and the job hunter sign a three-month contract,
    which can be renewed for another three months. The job hunters are paid if
    they find the job seeker a non-subsidised private sector job for at least six
    months. The job can be full time or part time, but the working time must be
    at least 75% of the normal.

  • Article
    3 August 2003

    In Austria, 'minimally employed workers' (geringfügig Beschäftigter) are
    defined as employees whose income per year does not exceed a fixed amount
    (calculated as a monthly average) laid down by law and upgraded annually. For
    2003, this monthly pay limit amounts to EUR 309.38. Nearly all minimally
    employed workers are part-time workers.


  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This publication series include the ERM reports, as well as blogs, articles and working papers on restructuring-related events in the EU27 and Norway.

  • European Working Conditions Telephone Survey 2021

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Developments in working life, industrial relations and working conditions in the EU

    This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

Forthcoming publications