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  • Article
    31 July 2003

    A new general anti-discrimination law was adopted in Belgium in February
    2003. It bans discrimination on many grounds and in various contexts,
    including employment relationships. It was expected that the law would have a
    major positive impact on equality at work, but has come under criticism for
    being unclear and hard to apply. For example, the law's definition of the
    discrimination to be prohibited is thought by some experts to be at odds with
    recent EU Directives on the issue, while some of the provisions may create
    difficulties in the employment context.

  • Article
    31 July 2003

    Since 1990, the relationships between the social partners and the state have
    played an important role in the process of economic and social transformation
    in Slovakia. Although the transformation process was not entirely without
    conflicts during the 1990s and early 2000s, disputes between the social
    partners did not result in any serious industrial action. Indeed, after
    Slovakia became independent in 1993, no genuine strikes were recorded until
    January-February 2003, when railway workers held two stoppages (SK0306101F
    [1]). Over this period, as a result of privatisation and the development of a
    market economy, the role of the state in the economy has been redefined. This
    new role has manifested itself in a reduction of direct interventions by the
    state authorities in the activities of individual sectors, enterprises and
    plants, and in efforts to influence the economy more indirectly through the
    tools of tax and fiscal policy. In the industrial relations area, the state
    has restricted itself to setting the legal framework for the labour market
    and social policy, including the rules for collective bargaining (SK0210102F
    [2]) - though it should be noted that the state is still a significant
    employer in the public services (eg education, healthcare and railways). The
    main role of the state in the social dialogue which has developed in Slovakia
    is the fulfilment of various tasks within the tripartite'concertation'
    process, involving the employers and the employees representatives at the top
    level or, in some cases, at sector level.


  • Article
    30 July 2003

    The Italian government took over the EU Presidency from Greece on 1 July
    2003, and will hold it until the end of the year. It has set out its
    programme and priorities in a document entitled Europe: Citizens of a shared
    dream [1].


  • Article
    29 July 2003

    The unemployment rate in Poland rose to 18.1% in 2002, with over 3.2 million
    people registered as jobless and long-term unemployment rising rapidly.
    Unemployment is becoming a major and widespread problem, no longer confined
    to specific industries or regions (though significant geographical
    differences persist). This article examines the situation in 2002 in detail,
    and looks at the measures being used in the fight against unemployment.

  • Article
    29 July 2003

    After over a year of negotiations (SI0206102F [1]), the government, trade
    unions and employers' organisations signed a two-year national 'social
    agreement [2] ' for 2003-5 on 22 April 2003. The agreement sets the general
    direction for economic and social developments and policies until 2005, and
    aims to supports balanced socio-economic development. The first such social
    agreement was signed in 1996.


  • Article
    29 July 2003

    Practices such as delayed payment of wages and failure to make social
    security contributions on employees' pay are relatively widespread among
    Polish employers. The problem is not new but has recently received renewed
    attention from trade unions and the media. Research conducted in May 2003 by
    the Warsaw School of Economics sheds light on the nature of these unfair
    employer practices, indicating that some 9% of employees do not receive their
    wages on time and 17% do not have their social security contributions paid in
    full. The situation is worst in smaller companies and those in private Polish

  • Report
    29 July 2003

    Changes to traditional gender roles and the labour market are forcing a rethink of conventional work-life patterns. Individuals are calling for a better quality of life, while employers require greater flexibility in the workplace. The idea of reorganising time over the whole course of working is one possible response. This report offers a conceptual framework to consider time arrangements and working life, linking this to measures to improve quality of life.

  • Report
    29 July 2003
    What are the working-time preferences of the workforce in Europe? Which schedules are the most compatible with family and other commitments? These questions are relevant to European employment policy and for the working-time policy negotiations of the social partners and are examined in this article.


  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This publication series include the ERM reports, as well as blogs, articles and working papers on restructuring-related events in the EU27 and Norway.

  • European Working Conditions Telephone Survey 2021

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Developments in working life, industrial relations and working conditions in the EU

    This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

Forthcoming publications