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  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    In the past decade, Ireland has developed a system of social participation
    which plays a major role in the conduct of economic and social policy. This
    approach began in 1987, with a three-year agreement [1] between the
    Government, the trade union movement, employers and agricultural interests.
    This lifted the country from the deep economic and social crisis of the 1980s
    and facilitated a return to growth. That agreement was followed by three
    further social partnership programmes, the latest of which is /Partnership
    2000/ (IE9702103F [2]). These agreements determine the growth of pay in both
    the public and private sector, but also embody a negotiated approach to a
    wide range of economic and social policies. The consensus which underpinned
    these agreements was, to a large extent, developed in the National Economic
    and Social Council (NESC), a deliberative body in which the social partners
    and senior civil servants undertake analysis and discussion of strategic
    issues. Following agreement on the strategic priorities, negotiation of the
    programmes was undertaken in a separate body, the Central Review Committee,
    which also monitors the implementation of the programmes.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/efemiredictionary/programme-for-national-recovery-pnr
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined/social-partners-agree-three-year-national-programme

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    The Spanish trade unions and employers' organisations which signed the
    important labour market reform agreements in April 1997 (the "April
    agreements") have carried out a review of their results over the first six
    months, which was published in January 1998. The social partners agree in
    general that the results are positive, but have reservations on some points.

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    Luxembourg's two public transport trade unions called a 48-hour strike in
    January 1998 in protest against the Government's intention to reduce their
    members' pensions.

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    A report on the service offered by the Greek public administration, released
    in January 1998, contains proposals aimed at achieving greater efficiency,
    greater responsibility amongst public servants, better management of the
    workforce and a better response to citizens' needs.

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    In 1992, the Municipal Workers' Union (Kommunalarbetareförbundet) and the
    Swedish Association of Local Authorities (Kommunförbundet) agreed to change
    the collective agreement on pensions then in force, with the effect that the
    pensioners did not receive the benefits they had counted on (SE9709136F [1]).
    A former sheet-metal worker, Knut Törling, sued his former employer, the
    City of Stockholm, claiming in all SEK 7,794, plus interest on overdue
    payment. Mr Törling argued that pension rights are the workers' acquired
    rights which a trade union cannot dispose of without a special authorisation
    from each member concerned, and he had never given such an authorisation to
    the Municipal Workers' Union. Therefore the City of Stockholm could not
    invoke the new collective agreement against him.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined/agreement-on-inferior-pension-terms-challenged-in-court

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    A collective agreement on working time was concluded in the construction
    industry on 9 August 1996. Although it became effective retroactively from 1
    July 1996, its first impact was felt only in 1997. The main aim was to reduce
    the industry's reliance on the national unemployment insurance system though
    workers being laid off during the winter, and to distribute the cost of doing
    so between enterprises and employees. It is now possible to make a first
    assessment of the deal's effects.

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    In December 1997, management and company works council [1] at the German car
    producer Audi AG concluded a works agreement on the introduction of a new
    permanent profit-sharing system for all employees, which comes into effect
    from 1998. This is the latest in a number of new personnel policies that have
    been introduced since 1988. Furthermore, both sides agreed the continuation
    of the 1996 agreement entitled /Audi for work and maintenance of the
    production location/ (Audi für Arbeit und Standortsicherung).

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/efemiredictionary/works-council-2

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    Recent statistics from Danmarks Statistik, the official statistical office,
    show that unskilled male workers' share of total employment in Denmark has
    remained unchanged at 18% over the period from 1980 to 1996. Overall, the
    share of all unskilled workers dropped from 23% in 1980 to 20% in 1996. The
    largest change has occurred for unskilled female workers, whose share dropped
    from 26% in 1980 to 21% in 1996. Out of a workforce of 2.8 million,
    approximately one million workers are categorised as "unskilled" or
    "lower-skilled" in Denmark.

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    A "High-Level Group" has advocated the continuation of the non-legalistic,
    "voluntarist" approach to industrial relations in Ireland, in a set of
    proposals aimed at tackling disputes over trade union recognition [1] rights
    for workers. The High-Level group, drawn from representatives of Government,
    state agencies, employer and trade union interests, was established in
    accordance with the current /Partnership 2000/ agreement between the social
    partners, which runs from January 1997 to March 2000 (IE9702103F [2]).

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/efemiredictionary/recognised-trade-union
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined/social-partners-agree-three-year-national-programme

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    The adjustment of Spain's national minimum wage in line with the projected
    rate of inflation for 1998 is considered insufficient by the trade unions. A
    dispute has arisen owing to the loss of the minimum wage's purchasing power,
    repeated failures to increase it and its wide differential with the average
    national wage, at a time when the Spanish economy is progressing favourably.

Series

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

  • European Quality of Life Surveys

    The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.

  • European Jobs Monitor

    This series brings together publications and other outputs of the European Jobs Monitor (EJM), which tracks structural change in European labour markets. The EJM analyses shifts in the employment structure in the EU in terms of occupation and sector and gives a qualitative assessment of these shifts using various proxies of job quality – wages, skill-levels, etc.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2016

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2016, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003. 

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2015

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2015, the sixth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 1996

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 1996, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2001

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2001, which was an extension of the EWCS 2000 to cover the then 12 acceding and candidate countries. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2000

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2000, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Company Survey 2004

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the first edition of the survey carried out in 2004–2005 under the name European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

Forthcoming publications

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