This report explores the drivers of economic and social convergence in Europe, using a selected set of economic and social indicators to examine trends in the performance of individual Member States. It also investigates what role the Economic and Monetary Union plays in convergence, particularly in southern and eastern Member States. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on convergence is analysed and initial conclusions are drawn about the impact of EU recovery packages and their ability to prevent divergence.
- Published between
- 6 Mai 2020 - 9 November 2021
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
- ForthcomingReportNovember 2022
This report offers a backward look at the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the work and life of Europeans. The main focus is on Eurofound’s e-survey ‘ Living, working and COVID-19’ which was launched on 9 April 2020 just after the onset of the crisis. Through four rounds of the survey (two in 2020 and two in 2021), the range of questions changed to match the evolving situation and to understand the effects on the everyday lives of citizens and workers.
- ReportOktoober 2022
Lockdown measures and the economic shift following the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a widening of the gender divide between men and women, putting at risk some of the gender equality gains that had been made in previous years. This report analyses changes in the distribution of paid and unpaid work, along with care and domestic responsibilities, among men and women during the crisis. It also explores the impact of the pandemic on the well-being of women and men.
- ReportOktoober 2022
The COVID-19 crisis has increased inequality between social groups in health, housing, employment, income and well-being. While a small part of society was able to hold on to or increase its wealth, other groups such as women, young people, older people, people with disabilities, low- and middle-income earners and those with young children were acutely affected by the pandemic. Drawing on current research on how to best measure multidimensional inequality, this report highlights recent trends in inequality in the context of the COVID-19 crisis.
- ForthcomingReportSeptember 2022
Given that compliance with lockdown measures is a first line of defence against COVID-19, maintaining trust in institutions is vital to ensure a coordinated, comprehensive and effective response to the pandemic. This report investigates developments in institutional and interpersonal trust across time, with a particular emphasis on the COVID-19 pandemic period and its impact. It examines the link between trust and discontent and investigates the effect of multidimensional inequalities as a driver of distrust.
- ReportAugust 2022
The hospital sector has been deeply impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Hospitals and their workers are on the frontline in the fight against the virus, and they face a number of significant challenges in terms of resources, work organisation and working conditions. This study will explore the role of social dialogue and collective bargaining in how the sector is adapting to the pandemic. What kinds of changes have been introduced, either through social dialogue or collective bargaining? Are the changes temporary or permanent?
- ReportJaanuar 2022
This report captures the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the quality of life of older citizens, including the impact on their well-being, finances, employment and social inclusion. It explores the effects on care use and reliance on other support. The report analyses policy measures that have been implemented in EU Member States that have proven particularly important for the quality of life of older citizens, for example, measures to support independent living.
- Report9 November 2021
COVID-19 pandeemia leviku aeglustamiseks kehtestatud piirangud on avaldanud eriti ränka mõju ELi noortele, kes on vaevu jõudnud taastuda 2007–2013. aasta majanduskriisist. Noored kogesid vanematest rühmadest suurema tõenäosusega töökohakaotust, rahalist ebakindlust ja vaimse tervise probleeme. Nad leidsid, et nende eluga rahulolu ja vaimne heaolu vähenesid isolatsiooninõuete ja koolide sulgemise tõttu.
- Report19 Oktoober 2021
COVID-19 pandeemia sulges või piiras paljusid majandustegevusalasid 2020. aastal, millel on tööturule kaugeleulatuv mõju. Pandeemia alguses vähenes tööhõive järsemalt kui ülemaailmse finantskriisi ajal. Veelgi suurem töötundide vähenemine tulenes töötajate ulatuslikust riigi toetatud sundpuhkusele saatmisest. Valitsuste füüsilise distantsi hoidmise poliitika viis veel ühe märkimisväärse ja suures osas ajutise kohandamiseni – üle mindi laialdasele kaugtööle nende töötajate puhul, kelle töökohad seda võimaldasid.
- Policy brief30 September 2021
The impact of COVID-19 has moved public health up the EU social policy agenda. As the EU directs its efforts towards establishing a European Health Union to guard against future health crises, this policy brief examines the extent to which the EU achieved upward convergence in terms of health and healthcare outcomes, as well as health expenditures and delivery, prior to the pandemic. It also examines convergence patterns in infections and deaths from COVID-19 and in the mitigating measures adopted by the EU and national governments.
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