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Job creation

Job creation refers to the process of providing new jobs, especially for people who were previously unemployed or inactive. Job creation is a key priority for EU social and employment policy. 


Recent updates

Eurofound research

Research carries out research on employment and changing labour markets, restructuring and job creation in the EU Member States. The investigation of factors supporting or inhibiting job creation also requires access to company-level information. Eurofound has conducted four editions of its European Company Survey (ECS) since 2003, providing comparative evidence on company practices and their link to innovation and job creation.

Jobs monitor

Eurofound’s European Jobs Monitor (EJM) looks in detail at recent shifts in employment at Member State and aggregate EU levels, covering cases of job creation and job loss by occupation and sector.


Restructuring monitor

The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) has recently explored the case of SMEs, meaning companies with fewer than 250 employees, as a source of job creation. It found that SMEs are likely to have contributed to improved employment levels and increasingly gain attention as a source of job creation in Europe. However, due to the large scale of the SME population, there is considerable heterogeneity among them, and not all are equally dynamic job creators.

Born globals

‘Born global’ enterprises – young companies with an international mindset – are also dynamic in job creation, despite their low share among enterprises. Eurofound research has looked at the potential of job creation in these new international businesses. It characterises born globals and outline their main strengths and weaknesses, as well as economic and labour market potential. 

Sector focus

A study on the creation of more and better jobs in home-care services highlights the persistent labour shortages in the health and social care sector. It analyses initiatives that were successful in either creating more jobs in the sector, or improving the quality of its jobs, with the dual aim of attracting new recruits and retaining existing staff.

As part of a pilot project on the future of manufacturing in Europe from 2015 to 2018, Eurofound gathered information on the reshoring of manufacturing and other value-chain activities to the EU and the resulting job gains.

Key outputs


Reshoring – namely the relocation of value chain activities back to the home country or its nearby region – has attracted an increasing interest both among scholars and policymakers. The...

1 Απρίλιος 2019
Research report

As Europe’s population ages, the number of adults needing long-term care is increasing. There are, however, persistent labour shortages in the health and social care sector; well-qualified staff are particularly...

10 Σεπτέμβριος 2013
Research report

EU context

The European Commission’s Investment Plan for Europe adopted in November 2014 focuses on creating jobs and boosting growth by making smarter use of financial resources, removing obstacles to investment and providing visibility and technical assistance to investment projects. Building on this, the InvestEU Programme 2021–2027 will further boost investment, innovation and job creation by making EU funding simpler to access and more effective. 

Research shows that the strongest recent structural employment growth was recorded in the health and care sectors and in information and communication technologies. Both sectors have strong potential for continued job creation, along with green jobs, as highlighted in the Commission’s 2012 ‘Employment package’. 

The Commission has recognised the contribution of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to economic development and labour markets in the EU, and it supports SMEs through a variety of policies and instruments. In 2016, the European Parliament issued a resolution on how best to support the job creation potential of SMEs.

Eurofound’s work on job creation links in with the Commission’s 2019–2024 priority on an economy that works for people. 


European Industrial Relations Dictionary 

Eurofound expert(s)

John Hurley

John Hurley is a senior research manager in the Employment unit at Eurofound. He took up the role of research manager in February 2012. He is responsible for the European...

Senior Research Manager
Publications results (108)

Η τεχνολογική αλλαγή επιταχύνεται καθώς διευρύνεται η ικανότητα των ηλεκτρονικών συσκευών να αποθηκεύουν, να επεξεργάζονται και να διαβιβάζουν πληροφορίες ψηφιακά. Η ψηφιοποίηση μετασχηματίζει την οικονομία και τις αγορές εργασίας της ΕΕ: σχεδόν το ένα τρίτο των χώρων εργασίας στην ΕΕ

15 December 2021

The economic and labour market contribution of international businesses is well recognised, but policymakers could do more to help such enterprises to develop their activities. This policy brief explores the workplace practices in export-oriented establishments that may contribute to their success

06 October 2021

Accumulating evidence indicates that large metropolitan centres are faring much better than other regions within the Member States of the EU. Such interregional inequality contributes to disenchantment with existing political systems, which in turn can weaken the social bonds that ground democratic

07 October 2019

Cooperatives and social enterprises are recognised for their resilience to cyclical and structural economic changes and their capacity to contribute to local and regional economic development, including social inclusion. In recent years, attention has increasingly focused on their ability to further

12 June 2019

The pilot project The Future of Manufacturing in Europe is an explorative and future-oriented study. It explores the future adoption of some key game-changing technologies and how this adoption can be promoted, even regionally. The analysis of implications for working life focuses primarily on tasks

10 April 2019

Reshoring – namely the relocation of value chain activities back to the home country or its nearby region – has attracted an increasing interest both among scholars and policymakers. The European Reshoring Monitor is a collaborative project between Eurofound and a consortium of Italian universities

01 April 2019

Protectionism is on the rise. This scenario estimates the potential impact of a significant increase in tariffs in the world’s major trading blocs. The analysis is carried out using the E3ME macroeconometric model, which provides information on sectoral impacts, together with the Warwick Labour

14 March 2019

Building on the analysis of national apprenticeship systems in the 2018 Eurofound report Adaptation of national apprenticeship systems to advanced manufacturing, this report summarises the results of 14 case studies of good practice in the manufacturing sector in five EU Member States (Denmark

28 February 2019

This report explores the potential employment and economic impacts of an EU transition to a low-carbon economy by 2030 – on the EU, and on other regions of the world. It analyses the impacts across sectors and occupations, with a particular focus on manufacturing.The report highlights that the

12 February 2019

Labour market slack is the shortfall between the volume of work desired by workers and the actual volume of work available. The most important indicator of labour slack is the unemployment rate, but an exclusive focus on this fails to take account of the four-fifths of the jobless population who are

18 July 2017

Online resources results (44)

First impacts of the Ukrainian crisis on employment in the EU

Russia’s invasion of Ukraine has shocked the world and the international community. Cities being destroyed, civilians wounded, innocent lives lost, refugees fleeing to other countries, and economic sanctions have become everyday news as this unprovoked and unlawful war unfolds.

Image of woman paying for goods by credit card through a smartphone in a coffee shop

Bank restructuring: disruptors versus incumbents

While high-street banks reacted to the COVID-19 pandemic by accelerating the push to digitalisation and cutting jobs, some digital-only banks are recruiting new staff to meet growing demand. An example is the ‘disruptor’ bank Revolut which has recently announced the creation of 1,000 jobs worldwide

Slovakia: latest working life developments Q2 2018

An increase in wage supplements, easier access for people from countries outside the EU to join the Slovak labour market and new legislation for social enterprises are the main topics of interest in this article. This country update reports on the latest developments in working life in Slovakia in

Austria: Latest working life developments – Q1 2017

New legislation regarding social and wage dumping, qualification and childcare benefits, the federal government’s work programme and an increase in members for the Austrian Trade Union Federation are the main topics of interest in this article. This country update reports on the latest developments

Portugal: Latest working life developments – Q3 2016

Good news on unemployment, criticism by social partners of sanctions on Portugal for breaking EU rules on the public deficit, and talks on increasing the minimum wage are the main topics of interest in this article. This country update reports on the latest developments in working life in Portugal

Cyprus: Latest working life developments – Q3 2016

A strike by primary school teachers and the resumption of public service recruitment are the main topics of interest in this article. This country update reports on the latest developments in working life in Cyprus in the third quarter of 2016.

Spain: Latest working life developments – Q3 2016

A slight fall in unemployment and trade union concerns over labour precariousness, and the need for social partners to reach agreement on a new salary pact are the main topics of interest in this article. This country update reports on the latest developments in working life in Spain in the third

Sweden: Debate on 'simple jobs' and lower entry-level wages

During the last quarter of 2015, and in preparation for the 2016 wage bargaining rounds, there was an intensive debate in Sweden on how best to reduce unemployment. One of the proposals put forward was to lower entry-level wages, thereby encouraging employers to hire additional staff.

Bulgaria: Proposed electricity price rise sparks protest from both sides of industry

Planned rises in electricity prices have drawn heated objections from employer organisations and trade unions and have led to large demonstrations.

Denmark: New reform targets unemployment

On 16 June 2014, employment reform to promote flexibility and encourage a high employment rate was agreed by the Danish parliament. The aim is to ensure that businesses get the workers they need, and the unemployed can improve their skills and qualifications. The reform will come into force fully by

Blogs results (6)

At the very outset of its mandate, the new European Commission presented the European Green Deal, establishing the objective of becoming the first climate-neutral bloc in the world by 2050. The initiative emphasises the seriousness which the European Commission places on the climate and biodiversity

21 Φεβρουάριος 2020

Economic disparities have been decreasing between EU member states over the past decade, but at the same time inequality has been growing within member states. Despite national level convergence, the gap in wealth and income between the rich and the poor is growing in most of Europe. Some of this

29 Οκτώβριος 2019

Over the past four years a special project delegated to Eurofound has looked in detail at ongoing changes in manufacturing on a global scale, analysed how the industry will change further in the future, and assessed what the impacts will be for Europe. Looking at everything from changes in tasks for

9 Απρίλιος 2019
The many faces of self-employment In Europe

While the Europe 2020 strategy actively promotes entrepreneurial self-employment as a means to create good jobs, policy makers at national and EU level are actively looking at better social protection for self-employed workers. Understanding this paradox requires looking beyond the ‘self-employed’

26 Οκτώβριος 2017
New-generation cars boost manufacturing employment

Rising levels of employment in manufacturing in the EU since 2013 have seen the part reversal of a long-term decline in employment in this sector. Data from the European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) database to early September 2017 show that, for the first time since 2005, the number of new

25 Οκτώβριος 2017

The EU has finally recovered all the net employment losses sustained since the global financial crisis. It has been a long and painful process. But there is at last growing evidence of positive momentum in EU labour markets, if not quite ‘animal spirits’. Many of those member states most affected by

26 Ιούλιος 2017
Data results (2)
24 Οκτώβριος 2023
Reference period:
20 Σεπτέμβριος 2023


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