In March 2002, Finland's Government Institute for Economic Research published
a research study on the distribution of national income between labour and
capital, commissioned by the tripartite incomes policy information
commission. According to the findings, the share of wages in the national
income has decreased drastically since the early 1990s. In response, the SAK
trade union confederation has warned of a new battle over the distribution of
Provides an overview and summary of western Europe's main industrial relations developments in 2001, drawing on the EIROnline database records entered during the year. The Review also provides a guide to using EIROnline.
A number of legislative proposals issued in 2001 and 2002 aim to strengthen
the position of the general meeting of shareholders in Dutch companies in
relation to company management and, in some cases, even the supervisory
board. At the same time, the powers of employee representatives will remain
largely unchanged. These changes may bring about a shift in the balance of
power within large companies in favour of shareholders.
In late March 2002, two telecommunications companies, the Finnish Sonera and
Swedish Telia, announced their intention to merge. The merger would create
the largest telecommunications operator in the Nordic countries and a
significant operator on the European scale. According to the companies, the
merger will not result in job losses at this stage. Trade unions state that
they are satisfied with the plan and believe that jobs will be secure.
On 27 January 2002, after a shorter than usual period of negotiations
(DK0111128F ), the Minister of Finance and the joint trade union
bargaining body, the Danish Central Federation of State Employees'
Organisations (Centralorganisationernes Fællesudvalg, CFU), concluded
bargaining over a new three-year collective agreement for some 175,000
employees - both civil servants and other employees - in the central
government sector. There was great satisfaction on both sides of the
bargaining table with the result, which should guarantee an increase in real
wages and the implementation of a number of other measures over a longer
This national report examines the main trends in temporary agency work and the problems and challenges it poses in Austria. It puts the spotlight on the working conditions of temporary agency workers, and the specific features of such work that might help explain these conditions.
In March 2002, Susanne Riess-Passer, the Vice-Chancellor and chair of the
populist Freedom Party (Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs, FPÖ), raised the
contentious issue of what is known in Austria as 'Pragmatisierung'- ie system
of permanent tenure for the career public servants, which provides absolute
protection against dismissal (see below). In line with prevailing public
opinion, the coalition government of the FPÖ and the conservative People's
Party (Österreichische Volkspartei, ÖVP) intends to reform the relevant
public service regulations to restrict this right of absolute protection
against dismissal to a certain narrowly defined group of public employees.
On 21 March 2002, the German-based construction company Philipp Holzmann AG
filed for bankruptcy protection in court. The collapse of Germany's
second-largest construction company came after several leading banks, among
others Deutsche Bank, Dresdner Bank, Commerzbank and HypoVereinsbank, failed
to reach an agreement on a feasible rescue plan and on providing the company
with new credit. Holzmann, which employs about 11,000 workers in Germany and
another 12,000 employees in its international subsidiaries, lost EUR 237
million in 2001 alone, which was much more than the EUR 199 million loss
which was expected as part of the company's long-term consolidation plan.
With the recent turn of events, it seems that more than 100 years of company
history have come to an end. This is not the first time, however, that
Holzmann has been threatened by bankruptcy.
The European Commission issued on 20 March 2002 a proposal for a European
Parliament and Council Directive on working conditions for temporary agency
workers . This is the third subject to be regulated within the framework
of the Commission's September 1995 social partner consultation on the issue
of 'atypical' work. This process has yielded two agreements negotiated
between the social partners at EU level – the European Trade Union
Confederation (ETUC), the Union of Industrial and Employers' Confederations
of Europe (UNICE) and the European Centre of Enterprises with Public
Participation and of Enterprises of General Economic Interest (CEEP). The
first was an accord on the regulation of part-time work, reached in June 1997
(EU9706131F ). This agreement forms the basis of EU Directive (97/81EC) on
part-time work , which was adopted on 15 December 1997. The second was an
accord on fixed-term work, reached on 14 January 1999 (EU9901147F ). This
agreement forms the basis of EU Directive (1999/70/EC) on fixed-term work
, which was adopted on 28 June 1999.
In 2002, women remain under-represented in leadership positions in Belgian
trade unions, and among members of employee representative bodies. The
reasons most frequently advanced for this state of affairs are family
responsibilities and social constraints. Female trade unionists are
increasingly demanding better representation, particularly in decision-making
roles, and the main unions are now seeking to change their attitudes and
increase awareness among women workers..
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2020. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in two rounds – in April and in July 2020. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.
How can working conditions be improved to make work more sustainable over the life course? This question has been the guiding principle for analysis of the 2015 European Working Conditions Survey data during the period of Eurofound’s work programme for 2017–2020. This flagship report brings together the different research strands from this work and gives a comprehensive answer to the question. It includes an analysis of trends in working conditions, examining whether these are the same for all workers or whether inequalities between different groups of workers are increasing.
Access to key social services, especially education and healthcare, as well as stable family life and decent housing are necessary for the well-being and development of children. Ensuring that all children have these resources is an EU priority; the European Commission is currently undertaking to recommend a Child Guarantee to address the situations of children in need. Service provision has been complicated by the COVID-19 outbreak, however, and the pandemic has put psychological and material strains on families.
This report builds on Eurofound's existing research on social mobility, assessing the distribution and transmission of wealth in Member States. It examines the roles of inheritance and household debt in explaining the transmission of advantage or disadvantage between the generations across Member States. The analysis is based on Eurosystem's Household Finance and Consumption Survey (HFCS).
This report analyses the involvement of the national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, and their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs) and other key policy documents of the European Semester cycle.
This report will focus on assessing the employment impact of the COVID-19 crisis, including its effects across sectors and for different categories of workers. It will also be looking at measures implemented to limit negative effects following the Coronavirus outbreak in Europe.
This report examines the contribution of social and employment services in EU Member States to the inclusion of people with disabilities, specifically in relation to the impact these have on labour market integration – in line with the 2006 UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The report includes a discussion of the costs and benefits of different approaches.
This report examines people's optimism about the future, for themselves and for others, and the extent to which it varies depending on one's social situation and perceptions of the quality of society. The study includes an analysis of the relationships between people’s perceptions of fairness and objective indicators of their social and economic situation and living standards.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the civil aviation (flight crew) sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements.
The European Green Deal is at the very top of Member State agendas across the EU. This topical update maps the national discussions – in policy, public and research debates – on the potential, ongoing or already felt impact on work and employment of the transition to a low-carbon economy. It attempts to identify the most active actors involved in these discussions (governments, social partners, NGOs and so on) and their perspectives.
This report will draw from case studies of establishments across the EU that have introduced advanced digital technologies in the workplace. The technologies in focus are the Internet of Things, 3D printing and virtual and augmented reality. Each case study – illustrated in the report - will explore the approach or strategy taken by the establishment to manage the digital transition and the impact of the deployment of the technology on the work organisation and job quality.