23 Marzo 2023
‘Social partners’ is a term generally used in Europe to refer to representatives of management and labour (employer organisations and trade unions), and in some contexts public authorities, that engage in social dialoRead more
‘Social partners’ is a term generally used in Europe to refer to representatives of management and labour (employer organisations and trade unions), and in some contexts public authorities, that engage in social dialogue. The term ‘European social partners’ specifically refers to those organisations at EU level which are engaged in European social dialogue, provided for under Articles 154 and 155 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU).
The social partners play a key role in the governance of the employment relationship, and are key actors in industrial relation systems. In most EU Member States, they shape working conditions and influence social policy, either through collective bargaining or tripartite social dialogue. They are interlocking parts in a multilevel system of governance that includes the European, national, sectoral, regional (provincial or local), company and establishment levels.Read less
Patterns and trends in social partner involvement in times of crises
Meeting of the Employment Committee (EMCO)
Representativeness of the social partner organisations: Civil aviation sector
The TFEU recognises and promotes the role of the social partners at EU level and documents the EU’s commitment to facilitate dialogue between the social partners, respecting their autonomy.Read more
The TFEU recognises and promotes the role of the social partners at EU level and documents the EU’s commitment to facilitate dialogue between the social partners, respecting their autonomy. This recognition is illustrated by the adoption of the multiannual work programmes of the social partners. In these programmes, the social partners themselves set their priorities and negotiation agenda and decide on the appropriate instruments for social dialogue.
Over the years, there has been increased recognition of the role of the EU-level social partners by the European institutions. This is reflected, for example, in the establishment of an annual tripartite social summit between the European Council, the European Commission and the social partners, enabling the latter to contribute, in the context of their social dialogue, to the various components of the economic and social governance of the EU. The main cross-industry organisations representing the social partners at EU level are:
- the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC)
- the Confederation of European Business (BusinessEurope)
- the Association of Crafts and SMEs in Europe (SMEunited, formerly UEAPME)
- the European Centre of Employers and Enterprises providing Public Services and Services of General Interest (CEEP)
The social partners play a prominent role in shaping EU social legislation. The Commission must consult the social partners before submitting proposals in the social policy field through a compulsory two-stage consultation procedure (Artilce 154 TFEU). Moreover, social partners can negotiate agreements that can be implemented either autonomously according to national practices, or be implemented at their request at EU level through a Council decision (Article 155 TFEU). To this extent, social partner agreements implemented at EU level have played a significant role in developing the EU social acquis.
In addition, the European institutional bodies view the two sides of industry as being key to the development of the European Semester, the cycle of economic and fiscal policy coordination within the EU. While the role of the social partners in the Semester is not clearly set out in the legislative framework, their participation has been recognised and strengthened in Regulation 1175/2011 on the surveillance of budgetary positions and the surveillance and coordination of economic policies. The revamped European Semester, initiated in 2015, allows more time for dialogue and greater involvement of the social partners at all levels.
- EUR-Lex: Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union
- EUR-Lex: Communication from the Commission on more efficient decision-making in social policy: Identification of areas for an enhance move to qualified majority voting
- European Commission: The European Semester
- EUR-Lex: Regulation (EU) No 1175/2011 on the strengthening of the surveillance of budgetary positions and the surveillance and coordination of economic policies
- European Commission: Consultations of the social partners
- ETUC: European social dialogue – Work programme 2019–2021
Social partners are core stakeholders who can assess policy needs and contribute to policy formation and to designing and implementing national reforms in the social and employment fields. This role and the need to involve the social partners in policymaking have been acknowledged in Guideline 7 of Council Decision 2018/1215 for the employment policies of the Member States, as well as in Principle 8 of the European Pillar of Social Rights.
- EUR-Lex: Council Decision (EU) 2018/1215 on guidelines for the employment policies of the Member States
- European Commission: The European Pillar of Social Rights in 20 principles
Eurofound investigates and reports on developments concerning the social partners, and research examines how they have responded in the EU Member States, the UK and Norway to the many new political, legal and social challenges that have arisen in recent years.Read more
Eurofound investigates and reports on developments concerning the social partners, and research examines how they have responded in the EU Member States, the UK and Norway to the many new political, legal and social challenges that have arisen in recent years.
Eurofound provides comparative research and articles on the main European trade unions, their memberships, organisational densities, mandates, strategies, what they offer to their members, and many more aspects of their operation.
Comparative research and articles are available on the main European employer organisations, their memberships, organisational densities, mandates, strategies and other aspects of their operation.
Involvement in policymaking
Eurofound also looks at the involvement of the national social partners in the design and implementation of reforms and policies, both in national policymaking and in the context of the European Semester and the elaboration of the National Reform Programmes.
COVID-19 and policy responses
Eurofound’s recently launched COVID-19 EU PolicyWatch collates information on the responses of government and social partners to the pandemic, including the role of the social partners in the design and implementation of the various measures in the Member States.
- Publication: COVID-19: Policy responses across Europe
- Database: COVID-19 EU PolicyWatch
- Topic: COVID-19
EU-level sectoral social partners and representativeness
European sectoral social dialogue has been slowly developing since the establishment of sectoral social dialogue committees in 1998. As of 2018, there are 43 such committees. Since 2006, Eurofound has had a mandate to carry out representativeness studies of the EU-level sectoral social partner organisations to identify the representative actors to be consulted. These studies are the most extensive mapping of sector-related employer organisations and trade unions across Europe. Research also compares the different ways in which the representativeness of social partners is defined at national, European and international levels.
- EurWORK: Representativeness studies (published since 2007)
- European Commission: Sectoral social dialogue
Key outputs over the years
Publications & dataTop
The sections below provide access to a range of publications, data and ongoing work on this topic.
- Publications (890)
- Ongoing work (8)
Eurofound publications come in a variety of formats, including reports, policy briefs, blogs, articles and presentations.
The concept of representativeness at national, international and European levelPublication 19 Diciembre 2016
Representativeness of the European social partner organisations: Personal services–hair and beauty sectorPublication 16 Diciembre 2016
Exploring the fraudulent contracting of work in the European UnionPublication 21 Noviembre 2016
Representativeness of the European social partner organisations: Extractive industries sectorPublication 28 Octubre 2016
Finland: Latest working life developments - Q3 2016Artículo 27 Octubre 2016
Foundation Seminar Series (FSS) 2016 - The impact of digitalisation on work: Building up national agendas for better implementation of digital changes - Session 2Evento 13 Octubre 2016
Germany: Initiatives by ver.di to support LGBTI workersArtículo 16 Septiembre 2016
Germany: VK initiatives to improve diversity management in the workplaceArtículo 16 Septiembre 2016
ILERA European Congress - The future of representationEvento 8 Septiembre 2016
Developments in working life in Europe: EurWORK annual review 2015Publication 5 Septiembre 2016
Data related to this topic are linked below.
- Database: COVID-19 EU PolicyWatch
Research continues in this topic on a variety of themes, which are outlined below with links to forthcoming titles.
Other ongoing work
- Exploration of the role of national social partners in the European semester and analysis of quality and effectiveness of their involvement
- Other representativeness studies on a variety of sectors to provide the European Commission with the required information to assess the representativeness of European sectoral social partner organisations.
- EurWORK: Representativeness studies (view upcoming studies)
- EurWORK: Representativeness studies (view upcoming studies)