Ugrás a tartalomra

Labour and social regulation

Labour and social regulation covers the legal framework and fundamental social rights that regulates industrial relations, employment and social policies across Europe. It includes national, EU and international legislation.  Union labour law has a direct or indirect impact on the normative and functional frameworks of individual and collective labour law systems of the Member States in a relationship of mutual interference and interaction.  Increasingly Union labour laws are also shaped by agreements that the parties voluntarily enter into and by soft law mechanisms.  The reform or modernising of labour law is currently high on the agenda in several Member States.


Recent updates


Employee monitoring: A moving target for regulation

This article explores the emerging risks from advanced monitoring technologies and how national jurisdictions are adapting to the challenges of digitally enabled workplace monitoring.


Regulatory responses to algorithmic management in the EU

Since 2013, Eurofound's ERM database on restructuring-related legislation has been documenting regulatory developments in the Member States of the European Union and Norway. The most recent update to the database...


Eurofound research

Eurofound has monitored legislative developments in industrial relations, working conditions and restructuring in Europe over time and from a comparative perspective across the Member States. The Agency’s work in this area seeks to assist decision-makers to better understand the legal framework for creating policy. It has also put resources in place to assist audiences in understanding the sometimes complex and difficult terminology used.

EU context

This topic covers the legal framework that regulates industrial relations and employment across Europe, including EU legislation and the fundamental labour standards that need to be taken into account.

Legislation is crucial in shaping how Europeans work and live. It is the basis for ensuring better working conditions, equitable labour relations, and equal opportunities for all citizens.

Publications results (81)

This report explores EU Member States’ legislation around the right to disconnect and assesses the impact of company policies in this area on employees’ hours of connection, working time, work–life balance, health and well-being, and overall workplace satisfaction.

30 November 2023

A „hibrid munkavégzés” kifejezés a távmunka elterjedésével vált népszerűvé a COVID19-világjárvány idején, amikor a vállalatok és a munkavállalók elkezdték megvitatni a munkavégzés válság utáni megszervezésének különféle módjait. A kifejezést egyre gyakrabban használják olyan helyzetek leírására

25 May 2023

Ez a jelentés a távmunka Covid19-világjárvány alatti, 2020-as és 2021-es helyzetével kapcsolatban az Eurofound által végzett kutatást ismerteti. Megvizsgálja a távmunka előfordulásában bekövetkezett változásokat, az otthonról dolgozó munkavállalók által tapasztalt munkakörülményeket és az e

08 December 2022

Ezt a jelentést „A minimálbér szerepe az egyetemes munkaügyi garancia létrehozásában” című hároméves kísérleti projekt (2021–2023) keretében az Európai Bizottság megbízásából az Eurofound készítette. Középpontjában a projekt 3. modulja áll, amely az önfoglalkoztatóknak járó minimálbéreket és egyéb

30 November 2022

A jelentés célja a 27 tagállam és Norvégia távmunkára vonatkozó jogszabályainak és a kollektív tárgyalásoknak a feltérképezése és elemzése. Feltárja a távmunkára vonatkozó jogszabályokkal kapcsolatos, az egyes országok közötti főbb különbségeket és hasonlóságokat, és bemutatja a vonatkozó

01 September 2022

A minimálbér megállapításának 2021-es, óvatos folyamatát követően a 2022-re vonatkozó névleges mértékek jelentősen emelkedtek annak eredményeként, hogy a pandémia kedvezőtlen következményei enyhültek, valamint javult a gazdaságok és a munkaerőpiacok helyzete. Ezzel összefüggésben a jogszabályban

15 June 2022

Digitisation and automation technologies, including artificial intelligence (AI), can affect working conditions in a variety of ways and their use in the workplace raises a host of new ethical concerns. Recently, the policy debate surrounding these concerns has become more prominent and has

30 May 2022

This publication consists of individual country reports on working life during 2021 for 28 countries – the 27 EU Member States and Norway. The country reports summarise evidence on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on working life based on national research and survey results during 2021. They

19 May 2022

Ez a jelentés összefoglalja, hogy milyen módon történt a minimálbérek értékének megállapítása 2020 során – a Covid19-világjárvány által meghatározott évben. Áttekinti a nemzeti döntéshozók előtt álló nehézségeket és azt, hogy milyen módon reagáltak a világjárvány gazdasági és szociális

10 June 2021

A jelentés azt vizsgálja, hogy az uniós tagállamok milyen szakpolitikákat alakítottak ki a fogyatékossággal élő személyek nyílt munkaerőpiaci integrációjának támogatása érdekében, különös tekintettel a munkába állás, a munkahely megtartása és a távollét utáni visszatérés három szakaszára. Több mint

19 April 2021

Online resources results (796)

Employee monitoring: A moving target for regulation

This article explores the emerging risks from advanced monitoring technologies and how national jurisdictions are adapting to the challenges of digitally enabled workplace monitoring.

Towards adequate minimum wages: Fairness and a decent standard of living

The adequacy of minimum wages established by the EU Minimum Wage Directive shall be assessed on two dimensions: fairness and the provision of a decent standard of living. It is up to the Member States to decide on their approaches to assessing the adequacy of minimum wage levels.

Regulatory responses to algorithmic management in the EU

Since 2013, Eurofound's ERM database on restructuring-related legislation has been documenting regulatory developments in the Member States of the European Union and Norway. The most recent update to the database captures new legislation concerning the use of algorithmic management in the employment


Collective bargaining and social dialogue – Back to normal in 2021?

Two years after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, social dialogue continues to make a significant contribution to helping economies recover. Managing the crisis led many governments to rely on tripartite social dialogue to develop the policies that would mitigate the negative impact of the


Back to work after COVID-19: Testing, vaccines and green certificates

In the second pandemic year 2021, access to one’s place of work was increasingly dependent on providing proof of either having been tested, vaccinated or recovered from COVID-19 in several countries. Specific professional groups – such as essential workers and workers in critical infrastructure –

Labour market regulation, effectiveness of legal rights and obligations, and safety and health at work 9 March 2021 Presentation by Barbara Gerstenberger, Head of unit - Working life, Eurofound

9 március 2021

Connecting and disconnecting and work-life balance 9 March 2021 Presentation by Tina Weber, Research manager - Employment unit, Eurofound

9 március 2021

Member States are dawdling on gender pay transparency

The gender pay gap in gross hourly earnings in the EU was 14.8% in 2018. To help combat discriminatory pay practices by employers, the European Commission recommended in 2014 the introduction of pay transparency measures in all Member States. But more than half still have not implemented any such


Summer time arrangements in the EU: A tripartite outlook on ‘Cloxit’

On 31 March 2019, clocks across the EU will go forward one hour, a Union-wide event since 2002. However, the European Commission has proposed abolishing the bi-annual hour change, an idea favoured by the vast majority of respondents in a public consultation. This article discusses reactions by

Blogs results (12)

The platform economy is one of those moving targets, which, despite receiving increasing media and policy attention, has proven difficult to regulate. Given the heterogeneity of employment relationships, business models, types of platform work and cross-border issues, this is not surprising. Yet, in

27 szeptember 2022

With the arrival of the month of May, the 2022 European Semester Spring Package is anticipated soon. After a transformative year in 2021, which saw the launch of the Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF) under NextGenerationEU, the European Semester cycle has resumed its role as the reference frame


Whether it is couch surfing, baby-sitting, pizza delivery or getting Ikea furniture assembled by somebody who can do it better, platforms can mediate all kinds of voluntary or professional services. Platform work is at the heart of the ‘sharing economy’. But while this may sound like a new form of

31 március 2022

With its proposed directive on gender pay transparency, the European Commission has significantly bolstered the set of tools for delivering its objectives compared to those presented in its 2014 Recommendation. The proposed portfolio of measures addresses many shortcomings of the instruments that na

18 június 2021

The massive and rapid adoption of telework in 2020 in response to the COVID-19 lockdowns exposed gaps in the legislation governing telework arrangements across the EU Member States. In some cases, there was no regulation in place; in others, it was too restrictive. Governments scrambled to put tempo

31 május 2021

Whatever the benefits of telework – and there are many, including more flexible working time, increased productivity and less commuting – there are drawbacks, as many of the one-third of Europeans who were exclusively working from home during the pandemic will attest. Primary among these is the ‘alw

3 december 2020

Following a sluggish response by many Member States to introduce or modify gender pay transparency measures, as it recommended in 2014, the European Commission intends to table a proposal for EU-level legislation on pay transparency later in 2020. In this context, a new Eurofound study investigated

6 november 2020

On 2 April, European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen announced a new fund of up to €100 billion to support EU Member States to introduce short-time working or similar schemes, including for the self-employed, in an effort to safeguard jobs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Known as SURE (Suppo

5 május 2020

Up to the start of 2020, recent EU economic and labour market trends were often discussed in terms of the periods before and after the Great Recession. It now appears likely that, in the short- to medium-term, the repercussions of that economic crisis will be dwarfed by the unfolding impact of the C

21 április 2020


When freely submitting your request, you are consenting Eurofound in handling your personal data to reply to you. Your request will be handled in accordance with the provisions of Regulation (EU) 2018/1725 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2018 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data by the Union institutions, bodies, offices and agencies and on the free movement of such data. More information, please read the Data Protection Notice.