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  • Article
    27 luty 1997

    The executive committee (sekretariatet) of the Norwegian Confederation of
    Trade Unions (Landsorganisasjonen i Norge, or LO), the largest union
    confederation in Norway, has recommended a programme of action containing a
    set of policy principles for the period 1997-2001. The programme encompasses
    a wide variety of social and economic issues and is to be adopted at the
    confederation's congress on 10-16 May 1997 after a plenary debate.

  • Article
    27 luty 1997

    Compared to many other western industrialised countries, Germany has the
    image of being a high-wage economy with a relatively low inequality of
    incomes and living standards. This is mainly the result of the German system
    of branch-level central collective bargaining (Flächentarifvertrag), where
    almost all employees in any sector receive the same basic payment.
    Nevertheless, it is not widely known that there is still a large number of
    sectors and areas of employment where collectively-agreed basic wages and
    salaries are relatively low. This is the main finding of a recent study by
    the Institute for Economics and Social Science (Wirtschafts- und
    Sozialwissenschaftliches Institut,WSI) on low wages in Germany
    ("Niedriglöhne. Die unbekannte Realität: Armut trotz Arbeit", Gerd Pohl &
    Claus Schäfer (eds), VSA-Verlag Hamburg (1996)). The study was inspired by
    the European Commission which, in 1993, adopted an Opinion on an equitable
    wage, the main purpose of which was "to outline certain basic principles on
    equitable wages, while taking into account social and economic realities".

  • Article
    27 luty 1997

    The Ford Motor Company announced on 16 January 1997 that it was to cut 1,300
    jobs at its Halewood plant on Merseyside (in the north-west of England) This
    was after five days of speculation following a report in the /Observer/
    newspaper that Ford wanted to install new efficient working practices, and
    that it would threaten to build its new -generation Escort model elsewhere,
    or close the plant altogether if trade unions did not agree to concessions.
    It was confirmed on 16 January that production of the new-model Escort would
    not include Halewood but instead be located at Saarlouis (Germany) and
    Valencia (Spain), and furthermore that Halewood would also immediately reduce
    its shift pattern to one shift per day. Because production of the old-model
    Escort is due to be phased out by 2000, there appears to be a real threat of
    the plant closing down altogether

  • Article
    27 luty 1997

    The agreement was concluded on 11 February 1997 and sets out the ways in
    which the financial recovery, growth and modernisation of the Italian rail
    system will be brought about in line with the guidelines of the 1991
    Directive on the development of Community railways (440/91/EEC). The deal was
    signed by the Ministry of Transport, the state railways board (FS), and the
    following railway trade union organisations: CGIL (the General Confederation
    of Italian Workers); CISL (the Italian Confederation of Workers' Unions); UIL
    (the Union of Italian Workers); the three confederations' respective sectoral
    organisations - Filt-Cgil, Fit-Cisl and Uilt-Uil; and three non-confederal
    organisations - Fisafs-Cisal (the autonomous rail trade union), Comu
    (theUnited Train Drivers' Committee) and Sma ( the Train Drivers' Trade

  • Article
    27 luty 1997

    Figures from the Confederation of Norwegian Business and Industry (
    Næringslivets Hovedorganisasjon or NHO) show that over 530,000 working days
    were lost in industrial conflict during the 1996 wage negotiations. These
    figures cover only private sector companies which are members of NHO, but
    nearly all industrial conflicts in 1996 took place within this area. This is
    the highest number of working days lost since 1986, when Norway experienced a
    major lockout in the private sector. In 1996, lawful strikes accounted for
    all the lost working days, and the number of working days lost in strikes
    alone (ie, excluding lock-outs) is thus the highest since the 1930s. The
    major strikes all came in the private sector and among unions affiliated to
    the Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions (Landsorganisasjonen i Norge, or
    LO). The Government did not, as often before, intervene to stop strikes with
    compulsory arbitration. Three strikes accounted for the majority of lost
    working days. These came in the metal industry, the hotel and restaurant
    industry and in the electrical installation industry.

  • Article
    27 luty 1997

    Late in 1996, Parliament passed legislation providing for changes in the
    Employment Security Act that aroused the anger of the trade unions. Although
    most of the new provisions apply from 1 January 1997, the most controversial
    modification, in Section 2 of the Act, will not come into force until 1 July.
    This will give trade unions and employers more time to adapt to the new rule
    in the legislation which deals with the level of central bargaining and
    collective agreements.

  • Article
    27 luty 1997

    The Institute for Economics and Social Science (Wirtschafts- und
    Sozialwissenschaftliches Institut, WSI) has recently published its annual
    examination of the previous collective bargaining round. It paints a rather
    mixed picture of 1996, a year in which collective bargaining was overshadowed
    by continuing relatively poor economic performance and a further increase in
    unemployment. GDP grew by only 1.4% over the year, while at the end of the
    year more than 4 million people were officially registered as unemployed.

  • Article
    27 luty 1997

    In January 1997, the cement company, Blue Circle (BCC), and two of Britain's
    largest trade unions, the Transport and General Workers Union (TGWU) and the
    General Municipal and Boilermakers Union (GMB), agreed what has been
    described as a "ground breaking" deal which gives a guarantee of job
    security, in return for pay restraint and more flexible working arrangements.
    Both the unions and the Labour Party see the agreement as a model for future
    employee relations, which could go some way towards reviving the fortunes of
    the British economy.


  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This publication series include the ERM reports, as well as blogs, articles and working papers on restructuring-related events in the EU27 and Norway.

  • European Working Conditions Telephone Survey 2021

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Developments in working life, industrial relations and working conditions in the EU

    This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

Forthcoming publications