This report studies practices in EU establishments for direct and indirect employee participation in decision-making. Indirect employee participation is the involvement of employee representatives in decision-making processes, while direct employee participation describes direct interaction between employers and employees. The study builds on the survey data from the Eurofound Third European Company Survey Overview report and focuses on how direct and indirect employee participation are related to each other and to national-level industrial relations characteristics. It establishes which practices of employee participation are beneficial both for the establishment and the employees. It finds that more extensive forms of direct and indirect employee participation are associated with positive establishment outcomes. An executive summary is available - see Related content.